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1.  LDL-Migration Index (LDL-MI), an Indicator of Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein (sdLDL), Is Higher in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis than in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115403.
Background
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risks of atherosclerotic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. However, the difference in risk between patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not yet been determined. Accumulating evidence has shown that high amounts of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) are closely associated with atherosclerotic diseases. This study investigated differences in risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases, especially LDL-migration index (LDL-MI), an indicator of sdLDL, between patients with NAFL and NASH.
Methods
LDL-MI was analyzed in a primary cohort of 156 patients with NAFLD, including 53 with NAFL and 103 with NASH, and a validation cohort of 69 patients with NAFLD, including 25 with NAFL and 44 with NASH.
Results
In the primary cohort, NASH was associated with elevated LDL-MI (p = 0.039). Multiple regression analysis showed that NASH and the non-use of lipid lowering medications were independently correlated with higher LDL-MI in all patients with NAFLD. Among patients not on lipid lowering medications, those with NASH had significantly higher LDL-MI than those with NAFL (p = 0.001). These findings were confirmed in a validation cohort, in that LDL-MI was significantly higher in patients with NASH than with NAFL (p = 0.043).
Conclusion
This study is the first to show that LDL-MI, an indicator of sdLDL, was higher in patients with NASH than with NAFL, suggesting that the risk of atherosclerotic diseases may be higher in NASH than NAFL. Patients with NASH should be followed closely, especially for the progression of liver pathology and atherosclerotic diseases.
Trial Registration
UMIN000009614
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115403
PMCID: PMC4277307  PMID: 25541989
2.  Rodent Models of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis 
Research in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has been limited by the availability of suitable models for this disease. A number of rodent models have been described in which the relevant liver pathology develops in an appropriate metabolic context. These models are promising tools for researchers investigating one of the key issues of NASH: not so much why steatosis occurs, but what causes the transition from simple steatosis to the inflammatory, progressive fibrosing condition of steatohepatitis. The different rodent models can be classified into two large groups. The first includes models in which the disease is acquired after dietary or pharmacological manipulation, and the second, genetically modified models in which liver disease develops spontaneously. To date, no single rodent model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but individual models can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that researchers choose the appropriate rodent models. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the metabolic abnormalities present in the currently available rodent models of NAFLD, summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the established models and the key findings that have furthered our understanding of the disease’s pathogenesis.
doi:10.3390/ijms141121833
PMCID: PMC3856038  PMID: 24192824
NAFLD; NASH; animal model; rodent model
3.  Critical role of leukotriene B4 receptor signaling in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation 
Background
Various inflammatory mediators related to obesity might be closely related to insulin resistance. Leukotrienes (LTs) are involved in inflammatory reactions. However, there are few reports regarding the role of LTs in adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-leukotriene receptor (BLT) signaling in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblastic preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes.
Methods
Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors, BLT antagonist, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BLT1 and BLT2 to block the LTB4-BLT signaling pathway, then the adipocyte differentiation such as lipid accumulation and the increase in triglyceride was evaluated.
Results
Blockade of BLT signaling by treatment with a LOX inhibitor or a BLT antagonist suppressed preadipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes. In addition, knockdown of BLT1 and BLT2 by siRNAs dramatically inhibited differentiation. These results indicate the LTB4-BLT signaling pathway may positively regulate preadipocyte differentiation and be a rate-limiting system to control adipocyte differentiation.
Conclusions
The LTB4-BLT signaling pathway provides a potent regulatory signal that accelerates the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the exact role of LTB4 and BLTs signaling pathways in preadipocyte differentiation.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-122
PMCID: PMC3751075  PMID: 23937951
Leukotrienes; Preadipocyte differentiation; Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts; BLT; siRNA
4.  Soluble CD14 Levels Reflect Liver Inflammation in Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65211.
Background & Aims
Liver inflammation is a risk factor for the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the diagnosis of liver inflammation is very difficult and invasive liver biopsy is still the only method to reliably detect liver inflammation. We previously reported that overexpression of CD14 in Kupffer cells may trigger the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via liver inflammation following hyper-reactivity to low-dose lipopolysaccharide. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between soluble type of CD14 (sCD14) and histological features in patients with NAFLD.
Methods
Our cohort consisted of 113 patients with liver biopsy-confirmed NAFLD and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Serum sCD14 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Serum sCD14 levels were significantly associated with diagnosis of NASH and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) to distinguish between not NASH and NASH was 0.802. Moreover, serum sCD14 levels were significantly associated with the disease activity based on NAFLD activity score and hepatic CD14 mRNA expression, which is correlated with membrane CD14 (mCD14) expression, in patients with NAFLD. In multiple regression analysis, the serum sCD14 levels were independently associated with liver inflammation. The AUROC to distinguish between mild and severe liver inflammation in patients with NAFLD was 0.752.
Conclusions
We found that serum sCD14 levels increased significantly with increasing liver inflammation grade in patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased hepatic CD14 expression. Serum sCD14 is a promising tool to predict the worsening of liver inflammation, and may offer a potential biomarker for evaluation of therapeutic effects in NAFLD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065211
PMCID: PMC3676404  PMID: 23762319
5.  Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Exacerbates Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury via Suppressing the Translocation of NF-κB into the Nucleus 
PPAR Research  2012;2012:940384.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) has been reported to reduce inflammation and attenuate fibrosis in the liver. In this study, we investigated the effects of PPARγ on the liver injury induced by 20 mg/kg Concanavalin A (Con A). The mice were administered one of the three types of PPARγ ligands (pioglitazone, ciglitazone, and troglitazone) for 1 week, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at 20 h after Con A injection were significantly elevated in the PPARγ ligand-treated mice. Furthermore, the serum ALT levels after Con A injection in the PPARγ hetero-knock-out mice (PPARγ+/− mice) were lower than those in the wild-type mice (WT mice). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) revealed extensive liver damage induced by Con A in the pioglitazone-treated mice. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that activation of translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) κB, which is a suppressor of apoptosis, in the nucleus of the hepatocytes was suppressed in the pioglitazone-treated mice after Con A injection. In this study, we showed that PPARγ exacerbated Con A-induced liver injury via suppressing the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus, thereby inhibiting the suppression of liver cell apoptosis.
doi:10.1155/2012/940384
PMCID: PMC3518969  PMID: 23251143
6.  Infection of specific strains of Streptococcus mutans, oral bacteria, confers a risk of ulcerative colitis 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:332.
Although oral bacteria-associated systemic diseases have been reported, association between Streptococcus mutans, pathogen of dental caries, and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been reported. We investigated the effect of various S. mutans strains on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. Administration of TW295, the specific strain of S. mutans, caused aggravation of colitis; the standard strain, MT8148 did not. Localization of TW295 in hepatocytes in liver was observed. Increased expression of interferon-γ in liver was also noted, indicating that the liver is target organ for the specific strain of S. mutans-mediated aggravation of colitis. The detection frequency of the specific strains in UC patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Administration of the specific strains of S. mutans isolated from patients caused aggravation of colitis. Infection with highly-virulent specific types of S. mutans might be a potential risk factor in the aggravation of UC.
doi:10.1038/srep00332
PMCID: PMC3312205  PMID: 22451861
7.  Involvement of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis on the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:16.
Background
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that is closely associated with multiple factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, other risk factors for the development of NAFLD are unclear. With the association between periodontal disease and the development of systemic diseases receiving increasing attention recently, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a major causative agent of periodontitis.
Methods
The detection frequencies of periodontal bacteria in oral samples collected from 150 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (102 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 48 with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients) and 60 non-NAFLD control subjects were determined. Detection of P. gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria were detected by PCR assay. In addition, effect of P. gingivalis-infection on mouse NAFLD model was investigated. To clarify the exact contribution of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, non-surgical periodontal treatments were also undertaken for 3 months in 10 NAFLD patients with periodontitis.
Results
The detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NAFLD patients was significantly higher than that in the non-NAFLD control subjects (46.7% vs. 21.7%, odds ratio: 3.16). In addition, the detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NASH patients was markedly higher than that in the non-NAFLD subjects (52.0%, odds ratio: 3.91). Most of the P. gingivalis fimbria detected in the NAFLD patients was of invasive genotypes, especially type II (50.0%). Infection of type II P. gingivalis on NAFLD model of mice accelerated the NAFLD progression. The non-surgical periodontal treatments on NAFLD patients carried out for 3 months ameliorated the liver function parameters, such as the serum levels of AST and ALT.
Conclusions
Infection with high-virulence P. gingivalis might be an additional risk factor for the development/progression of NAFLD/NASH.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-16
PMCID: PMC3305584  PMID: 22340817
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); P. gingivalis; Oral bacteria; Insulin resistance
8.  Role of endothelin receptor signalling in squamous cell carcinoma 
International Journal of Oncology  2011;40(4):1011-1019.
Endothelin plays important roles in various physiological functions including vascular constriction. Recent studies reported that the endothelin receptors ETA and ETB are highly expressed in lung and skin tumor tissues. In contrast, there are few reports on endothelin signalling in the proliferation of head and neck cancer. We found that both ETA and ETB endothelin receptors were overexpressed in tumor cells of tongue cancer samples by immunohistochemistry. ETA and ETB were expressed in cultured lingual and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs) cell lines. When both cultured cell lines were treated with an ETA selective antagonist (BQ123) or an ETB selective antagonist (BQ788), inhibition of cell growth was observed. Similar results were observed when SCCs were treated with specific siRNA for the suppression of ETA or ETB. Furthermore, inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway by the treatments with ET receptor antagonists and siRNA was also observed. These results indicate that endothelin signalling may, in part, play important roles in cell growth in SCCs through the MAP kinase pathway.
doi:10.3892/ijo.2011.1258
PMCID: PMC3584554  PMID: 22075705
squamous cell carcinoma; tongue; cellular proliferation; endothelin receptor; MAP kinase signaling pathway
9.  Renal cell carcinoma with a tumor thrombus in the ureter: a case report 
BMC Urology  2011;11:16.
Background
Renal cell carcinoma (RCCs) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. When RCC progresses, it is known to form tumor thrombus in the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava. However, RCC does not normally form tumor thrombus in the ureter or renal pelvis.
Case presentation
A 43-year-old man presented to our department for the treatment of a renal tumor with asymptomatic gross hematuria. In a dynamic CT study, contrast enhancement revealed a tumor suspected to be RCC, but atypical finding as a tumor thrombus that filled the renal pelvis and the whole ureter was also observed. Nephroureterectomy was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed histopathologically as RCC.
Conclusion
We report here a very rare case of RCC with a tumor thrombus in the whole ureter.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-16
PMCID: PMC3161958  PMID: 21806792
10.  Serum nitric oxide metabolite as a biomarker of visceral fat accumulation: Clinical significance of measurement for nitrate/nitrite 
Summary
Background
A visceral fat area of more than 100 cm2 as measured by computed tomography (CT) at the umbilical level has been included as a criterion for obesity in all the proposed criteria for metabolic syndrome. However, CT cannot be used frequently because of radiation exposure. We evaluated the usefulness of measurement of the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), instead of CT and the waist circumference, as a marker of abdominal visceral fat accumulation.
Material/Methods
The study was carried out in 80 subjects. The serum levels of NO metabolites (nitrate/nitrite) were measured using the Griess reagent.
Results
Simple and multiple regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of NO metabolites showed the greatest degree of correlation with the visceral fat area (r=0.743, p<0.0001), and corresponded to a visceral fat area of 100 cm2, as determined using the ROC curve, was 21.0 μmol/ml (sensitivity 88%, specificity 82%); this method was more sensitive than the waist circumference for evaluation of the visceral fat accumulation.
Conclusions
Measurement of the serum levels of NO metabolites may be a simple, safe, convenient and reliable method for the evaluation of visceral fat accumulation in clinical diagnostic screening.
doi:10.12659/MSM.881445
PMCID: PMC3524723  PMID: 21358598
visceral fat; obesity; NO metabolite; waist scale; metabolic syndrome
11.  cis9, trans11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Differentiates Mouse 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes into Mature Small Adipocytes through Induction of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ 
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to exhibit a number of therapeutic effects in animal models and patients, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-arteriosclerotic, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism is not well-characterized. In the present study, the effects of cis(c)9, trans(t)11-CLA on the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes were examined. Treatment with c9, t11-CLA in the presence of insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (differentiation cocktail) significantly stimulated the accumulation of triacylglycerol. The microscopic observation of cells stained by Oil Red O demonstrated that c9, t11-CLA increases the amount and proportion of small mature adipocytes secreting adiponectin, a benign adipocytokine, when compared to the differentiation cocktail alone. Furthermore, c9, t11-CLA increased bioactive peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) levels in a nuclear extract of 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting the enhancing effect of this fatty acid on the nuclear transmission of PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of c9, t11-CLA on lifestyle-related diseases are partially due to the enhanced formation of small adipocytes from preadipocytes via PPARγ stimulation.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-44
PMCID: PMC2935157  PMID: 20838573
conjugated linoleic acid; adipocyte differentiation; 3T3-L1 cells; adiponectin; lifestyle-related diseases
12.  Association between PPARGC1A polymorphisms and the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) 
BMC Gastroenterology  2008;8:27.
Background
Genetic factors as well as environmental factors are important in the development of NAFLD and in this study we investigated associations between polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α polymorphism (PPARGC1A) and NAFLD.
Aims
We recruited 115 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 65 with NASH and 50 with simple steatosis, and 441 healthy control subjects and investigated 15 SNPs of PPARGC1A.
Results
SNP rs2290602 had the lowest p value in the dominant mode (p = 0.00095), and the odds ratio for NAFLD (95% CI) was 2.73 (1.48 – 5.06). rs2290602 was significantly associated with NAFLD even when the most conservative Bonferroni's correction was applied (p = 0.0143). The frequency of the T allele of rs2290602 was significantly higher in the NASH patients than in the control subjects (p = 0.00093, allele frequency mode), and its frequency in the NASH patients tended to be higher than in the simple steatosis patients (p = 0.09). The results of the real-time RT-PCR study showed that intrahepatic mRNA expression of PPARGC1A was lower in the TT group than in the GG or GT group at SNP rs2290602 (p = 0.0454).
Conclusion
This is the first study to demonstrate a significant association between genetic variations in PPARGC1A and NAFLD. This finding suggested that PPARGC1A polymorphism and lower expression of PPARGC1A mRNA in the liver are an important genetic contribution to etiology of NAFLD.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-8-27
PMCID: PMC2453128  PMID: 18588668
13.  The collagen-binding protein of Streptococcus mutans is involved in haemorrhagic stroke 
Nature Communications  2011;2:485-.
Although several risk factors for stroke have been identified, one-third remain unexplained. Here we show that infection with Streptococcus mutans expressing collagen-binding protein (CBP) is a potential risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke. Infection with serotype k S. mutans, but not a standard strain, aggravates cerebral haemorrhage in mice. Serotype k S. mutans accumulates in the damaged, but not the contralateral hemisphere, indicating an interaction of bacteria with injured blood vessels. The most important factor for high-virulence is expression of CBP, which is a common property of most serotype k strains. The detection frequency of CBP-expressing S. mutans in haemorrhagic stroke patients is significantly higher than in control subjects. Strains isolated from haemorrhagic stroke patients aggravate haemorrhage in a mouse model, indicating that they are haemorrhagic stroke-associated. Administration of recombinant CBP causes aggravation of haemorrhage. Our data suggest that CBP of S. mutans is directly involved in haemorrhagic stroke.
The risk factors associated with both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke are not fully understood. Here a certain strain of the bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, which expresses a collagen-binding protein, is shown to be associated with haemorrhagic stroke in both animal models and human patients.
doi:10.1038/ncomms1491
PMCID: PMC3220351  PMID: 21952219

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