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1.  Increased expression of MMP-9 and IL-8 are correlated with poor prognosis of Bladder Cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:18.
Background
Extracellular matrix homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and its specific inhibitors, are expressed in a reproducible, specific pattern and if the profiles are related to prognosis in Bladder Cancer (BC).
Methods
MMP-9, MMP-2 and its specific inhibitors expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in fresh-frozen malignant tissue collected from 40 patients with BC submitted to transurethral resection of bladder. The control group consisted of normal bladder tissue from five patients who had undergone retropubic prostatectomy to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Results
MMP-9 was overexpressed in 59.0 % of patients, and MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-14, RECK and IL-8 was underexpressed in most of the patients. Regarding prognostic parameters we observed that high-grade tumors exhibited significantly higher levels of MMP-9 and IL-8 (p = 0.012, p = 0.003). Invasive tumors (pT1-pT2) had higher expression levels of MMP-9 than superficial tumors (pTa) (p = 0.026). The same was noted for IL-8 that was more expressed by invasive tumors (p = 0.015, p = 0.048). Most importantly tumor recurrence was related with higher levels of both MMP-9 (p = 0.003) and IL-8 (p = 0.005).
Conclusion
We have demonstrated that the overexpression of MMP-9 and higher expression of IL-8 are related to unfavorable prognostic factors of urothelial bladder cancer and tumor recurrence and may be useful in the follow up of the patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-18
PMCID: PMC3424138  PMID: 22695075
Bladder cancer; Matrix metalloproteinase; Prognosis; Diagnosis; Gene expression
2.  Tgf-β1 expression as a biomarker of poor prognosis in prostate cancer 
Clinics  2011;66(7):1143-1147.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the correlation between transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) expression and prognosis in prostate cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
TGF-β1 expression levels were analyzed using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to amplify RNA that had been isolated from fresh-frozen malignant and benign tissue specimens collected from 89 patients who had clinically localized prostate cancer and had been treated with radical prostatectomy. The control group consisted of 11 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. The expression levels of TGF-β1 were compared between the groups in terms of Gleason scores, pathological staging, and prostate-specific antigen serum levels.
RESULTS:
In the majority of the tumor samples, TGF-β1 was underexpressed 67.0% of PCa patients. The same expression pattern was identified in benign tissues of patients with prostate cancer. Although most cases exhibited underexpression of TGF-β1, a higher expression level was found in patients with Gleason scores ≥7 when compared to patients with Gleason scores <7 (p = 0.002). Among the 26 cases of TGF-β1 overexpression, 92.3% had poor prognostic features.
CONCLUSIONS:
TGF-β1 was underexpressed in prostate cancers; however, higher expression was observed in tumors with higher Gleason scores, which suggests that TGF-β1 expression may be a useful prognostic marker for prostate cancer. Further studies of clinical specimens are needed to clarify the role of TGF-β1 in prostate carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322011000700004
PMCID: PMC3148455  PMID: 21876965
Prostate cancer; Prognosis; Molecular markers; TGF-β

Results 1-2 (2)