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1.  The Role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Predicting Prostate Cancer Risk and Therapeutic Decision Making 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:627510.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health care problem because of its high prevalence, health-related costs, and mortality. Epidemiological studies have suggested an important role of genetics in PCa development. Because of this, an increasing number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had been suggested to be implicated in the development and progression of PCa. While individual SNPs are only moderately associated with PCa risk, in combination, they have a stronger, dose-dependent association, currently explaining 30% of PCa familial risk. This review aims to give a brief overview of studies in which the possible role of genetic variants was investigated in clinical settings. We will highlight the major research questions in the translation of SNP identification into clinical practice.
doi:10.1155/2014/627510
PMCID: PMC3950427
2.  Denosumab and Bone Metastasis-Free Survival in Men With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Results of a Global Phase 3, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Lancet  2011;379(9810):39-46.
Background
Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that osteoclast inhibition may prevent bone metastases. This phase 3 study evaluated denosumab, a fully human anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody, to prevent bone metastasis or death from any cause in men with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Methods
Men with non-metastatic CRPC at high risk for bone metastasis (PSA ≥8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time ≤10.0 months) were enrolled in 319 centers from 30 countries. Patients were randomised 1:1 in blinded fashion using an interactive voice response system to receive monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. The primary endpoint was bone metastasis-free survival, a composite endpoint determined by time to first occurrence of bone metastasis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) or death.
Results
1432 patients were randomised, 716 to receive denosumab and 716 to receive placebo. Denosumab significantly increased bone metastasis-free survival by a median of 4.2 months over placebo (hazard ratio 0.85 [0.73–0.98]; P=0.028). Denosumab also significantly delayed time to first bone metastasis (hazard ratio 0.84 [0.71–0.98]; P=0.032). Overall survival was similar between groups (hazard ratio 1.01 [0.85–1.20]; P=0.91). Rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were generally similar between groups, except for osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ) and hypocalcemia. Yearly cumulative incidence of ONJ for denosumab was: 1%, 3%, 4% in years 1, 2, 3, respectively; overall, less than 5% (n=33). Hypocalcemia occurred in under 2% (n=12) of denosumab and under 1% (n=2) of placebo patients. The blinded treatment phase has been completed.
Conclusion
In men with CRPC, denosumab significantly prolonged bone metastasis-free survival and delayed time to bone metastasis. This is the first large randomised study to demonstrate that targeting the bone microenvironment prevents bone metastasis in men with prostate cancer.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61226-9
PMCID: PMC3671878  PMID: 22093187
urology/prostate disease; denosumab; prostate cancer; prevention; bone metastasis; survival; hormone refractory; castration-resistant
3.  Salvage Radical Prostatectomy for Radiation-recurrent Prostate Cancer: A Multi-institutional Collaboration 
European urology  2011;60(2):205-210.
Background
Oncologic outcomes in men with radiation-recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) treated with salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) are poorly defined.
Objective
To identify predictors of biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastasis, and death following SRP to help select patients who may benefit from SRP.
Design, setting, and participants
This is a retrospective, international, multi-institutional cohort analysis. There was a median follow-up of 4.4 yr following SRP performed on 404 men with radiation-recurrent PCa from 1985 to 2009 in tertiary centers.
Intervention
Open SRP.
Measurements
BCR after SRP was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.1 or ≥0.2 ng/ml (depending on the institution). Secondary end points included progression to metastasis and cancer-specific death.
Results and limitations
Median age at SRP was 65 yr of age, and median pre-SRP PSA was 4.5 ng/ml. Following SRP, 195 patients experienced BCR, 64 developed metastases, and 40 died from PCa. At 10 yr after SRP, BCR-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) probabilities were 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31–43), 77% (95% CI, 71–82), and 83% (95% CI, 76–88), respectively. On preoperative multivariable analysis, pre-SRP PSA and Gleason score at postradiation prostate biopsy predicted BCR (p = 0.022; global p < 0.001) and metastasis (p = 0.022; global p < 0.001). On postoperative multivariable analysis, pre-SRP PSA and pathologic Gleason score at SRP predicted BCR (p = 0.014; global p < 0.001) and metastasis (p < 0.001; global p < 0.001). Lymph node involvement (LNI) also predicted metastasis (p = 0.017). The main limitations of this study are its retrospective design and the follow-up period.
Conclusions
In a select group of patients who underwent SRP for radiation-recurrent PCa, freedom from clinical metastasis was observed in >75% of patients 10 yr after surgery. Patients with lower pre-SRP PSA levels and lower postradiation prostate biopsy Gleason score have the highest probability of cure from SRP.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.03.011
PMCID: PMC3124574  PMID: 21420229
Prostate cancer; Radiation therapy; Salvage therapy
4.  Emerging novel therapies for advanced prostate cancer 
This review examines the development and efficacy of novel treatment options for advanced prostate cancer and discusses novel therapies that are on the horizon. Since the introduction of docetaxel as the standard treatment for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a number of different agents have been tested but failed to demonstrate improvement in overall survival (OS). Recently, three novel compounds have demonstrated OS benefit and one other showed reduction in skeletal-related events (SREs). Sipuleucel-T, a novel vaccine, was approved by the US regulatory authorities in April 2010 for patients with early advanced prostate cancer. A new taxane, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, have shown an OS benefit in advanced CRPC after docetaxel, leading to drug approval. A new bone-targeting agent, denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) antagonist, showed a modest reduction in SREs in comparison to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases. Other promising novel agents are currently being tested in the clinical setting of advanced CRPC. These include, androgen receptor inhibitors (MDV3100), androgen biosynthesis inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors (thalidomide, lenalidomine, aflibercept, tasquinimod), a novel form of radiotherapy (radium-223), and immune-modulating compounds (PROSTVAC-VF). Improvements in progression-free survival and OS rates, observed with novel agents, in metastatic prostate cancer have led to a shift in treatment paradigm. The challenge will be to position the current established and expected novel treatments in the new landscape of metastatic prostate cancer and to determine at what point and time in the disease course they can best be administered.
doi:10.1177/1756287211432777
PMCID: PMC3263924  PMID: 22295041
abiraterone; cabazitaxel; castration-resistant prostate cancer; MDV3100; sipuleucel-T; denosumab; zoledronic acid
5.  Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements 
As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa) will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic.
doi:10.2147/CMR.S18503
PMCID: PMC3097798  PMID: 21629831
alpha-tocopherol; chemoprevention; isoflavones; lycopene; polyphenols; prostate cancer; selenium
6.  Evaluation of degarelix in the management of prostate cancer 
Medical castration using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists currently provides the mainstay of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Although effective, these agents only reduce testosterone levels after a delay of 14 to 21 days; they also cause an initial surge in testosterone that can stimulate the cancer and lead to exacerbation of symptoms (“clinical flare”) in patients with advanced disease. Phase III trial data for the recently approved GnRH receptor blocker, degarelix, demonstrated that it is as effective and well tolerated as GnRH agonists. However, it has a pharmacological profile more closely matching orchiectomy, with an immediate onset of action and faster testosterone and PSA suppression, without a testosterone surge or microsurges following repeated injections. As a consequence, with this GnRH blocker, there is no risk of clinical flare and no need for concomitant antiandrogen flare protection. Degarelix therefore provides a useful addition to the hormonal armamentarium for prostate cancer and offers a valuable new treatment option for patients with hormone-sensitive advanced disease. Here, we review key preclinical and clinical data for degarelix, and look at patient-focused perspectives in the management of prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3004563  PMID: 21188095
degarelix; GnRH receptor antagonist; GnRH receptor blocker; prostate cancer
7.  Management of prostate cancer in older men: recommendations of a working group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology 
Bju International  2010;106(4):462-469.
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in men and predominantly affects older men (aged ≥70 years). The median age at diagnosis is 68 years; overall, two-thirds of prostate cancer-related deaths occur in men aged ≥75 years. With the exponential ageing of the population and the increasing life-expectancy in developed countries, the burden of prostate cancer is expected to increase dramatically in the future. To date, no specific guidelines on the management of prostate cancer in older men have been published. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) conducted a systematic bibliographic search based on screening, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for localized and advanced prostate cancer, to develop a proposal for recommendations that should provide the highest standard of care for older men with prostate cancer. The consensus of the SIOG Prostate Cancer Task Force is that older men with prostate cancer should be managed according to their individual health status, which is mainly driven by the severity of associated comorbid conditions, and not according to chronological age. Existing international recommendations (European Association of Urology, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and American Urological Association) are the backbone for localized and advanced prostate cancer treatment, but need to be adapted to patient health status. Based on a rapid and simple evaluation, patients can be classified into four different groups: 1, ‘Healthy’ patients (controlled comorbidity, fully independent in daily living activities, no malnutrition) should receive the same treatment as younger patients; 2, ‘Vulnerable’ patients (reversible impairment) should receive standard treatment after medical intervention; 3, ‘Frail’ patients (irreversible impairment) should receive adapted treatment; 4, Patients who are ‘too sick’ with ‘terminal illness’ should receive only symptomatic palliative treatment.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09334.x
PMCID: PMC3258484  PMID: 20346033
elderly; guidelines; localized disease; metastatic; prostate cancer
8.  Randomized Phase 3 Trial of Abiraterone Acetate in Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and No Prior Chemotherapy 
The New England journal of medicine  2012;368(2):138-148.
Background
Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) post-chemotherapy. Many mCRPC patients never receive chemotherapy and thus cannot benefit from abiraterone acetate; we evaluated this agent in mCRPC patients who had not received chemotherapy.
Methods
In this double-blind study, 1088 patients were randomized 1:1 to abiraterone acetate (1000 mg) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone. Co-primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and OS. Secondary end points measured clinically relevant landmarks of mCRPC progression. Patient-reported outcomes included pain progression and quality of life.
Results
The study was unblinded after a planned interim analysis (IA) at 43% of OS events. Treatment with abiraterone acetate-prednisone resulted in a 57% reduction in the risk of radiographic progression or death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35 to 0.52; P<0.001; 13% OS events IA) and an estimated 25% decrease in the risk of death (HR, 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.009; 43% OS events IA). Secondary end points supported superiority of abiraterone acetate-prednisone: time to cytotoxic chemotherapy initiation, opiate use for cancer-related pain, prostate-specific antigen progression (all P<0.001) and performance status deterioration (P=0.005). Self-reported time to pain progression and patient functional status degradation favored abiraterone acetate-prednisone (P=0.05 and P=0.003). Grade 3/4 mineralocorticoid-related adverse events and liver function test abnormalities were more common with abiraterone acetate-prednisone.
Conclusions
Abiraterone acetate produces OS and rPFS benefits, as well as significant delays in clinical deterioration and initiation of chemotherapy, in mCRPC.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1209096
PMCID: PMC3683570  PMID: 23228172
Abiraterone acetate; prednisone; metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; androgen; CYP17
9.  18F-MK-9470 PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in prostate carcinoma: a pilot study 
EJNMMI Research  2013;3:59.
Background
Preclinical and histological data show overexpression of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) in prostate carcinoma (PCa). In a prospective study, the feasibility of 18F-MK-9470 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with primary and metastatic PCa was evaluated.
Methods
Eight patients were included and underwent 18F-MK-9470 PET/CT imaging. For five patients with primary PCa, dynamic PET/CT imaging was performed over three acquisition intervals (0 to 30, 60 to 90 and 120 to 150 min post-injection). In malignant and benign prostate tissue regions, time activity curves of the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) were determined as well as the corresponding area under the curve to compare 18F-MK-9470 uptake over time. Muscle uptake of 18F-MK-9470 was used as reference for non-specific binding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as anatomical reference and for delineating intraprostatic tumours. Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination was performed on the whole-mount histopathology sections of four patients who underwent radical prostatectomy to assess the MRI-based tumour versus benign tissue classification. For three patients with proven advanced metastatic disease, two static PET/CTs were performed 1 and 3 h post-injection. 18F-MK-9470 uptake was evaluated in bone lesions of metastatic PCa by comparing SUVmean values of metastases with these of the contralateral bone tissue.
Results
18F-MK-9470 uptake was significantly higher in benign and malignant prostate tissue compared to muscle, but it did not differ between both prostate tissue compartments. IHC findings of corresponding prostatic histopathological sections indicated weak CB1R expression in locally confined PCa, which was not visualized with 18F-MK-9470 PET. Metastases in the axial skeleton could not be detected while some metastases in the appendicular skeleton showed higher 18F-MK-9470 uptake as compared to the uptake in contralateral normal bone.
Conclusions
18F-MK-9470 PET could not detect local PCa or bone metastases in the axial skeleton but was able to visualize metastases in the appendicular skeleton. Based on these pilot observations, it seems unlikely that CB1R PET will play a significant role in the evaluation of PCa.
doi:10.1186/2191-219X-3-59
PMCID: PMC3750838  PMID: 23915639
Prostate cancer; CB1R; PET/CT; MRI; 18F-MK-9470
10.  Genome-Wide MicroRNA Expression Analysis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma by Next Generation Deep Sequencing 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38298.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression, are frequently aberrantly expressed in human cancers. Next-generation deep sequencing technology enables genome-wide expression profiling of known miRNAs and discovery of novel miRNAs at unprecedented quantitative and qualitative accuracy. Deep sequencing was performed on 11 fresh frozen clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and adjacent non-tumoral renal cortex (NRC) pairs, 11 additional frozen ccRCC tissues, and 2 ccRCC cell lines (n = 35). The 22 ccRCCs patients belonged to 3 prognostic sub-groups, i.e. those without disease recurrence, with recurrence and with metastatic disease at diagnosis. Thirty-two consecutive samples (16 ccRCC/NRC pairs) were used for stem-loop PCR validation. Novel miRNAs were predicted using 2 distinct bioinformatic pipelines. In total, 463 known miRNAs (expression frequency 1–150,000/million) were identified. We found that 100 miRNA were significantly differentially expressed between ccRCC and NRC. Differential expression of 5 miRNAs was confirmed by stem-loop PCR in the 32 ccRCC/NRC samples. With respect to RCC subgroups, 5 miRNAs discriminated between non-recurrent versus recurrent and metastatic disease, whereas 12 uniquely distinguished non-recurrent versus metastatic disease. Blocking overexpressed miR-210 or miR-27a in cell line SKCR-7 by transfecting specific antagomirs did not result in significant changes in proliferation or apoptosis. Twenty-three previously unknown miRNAs were predicted in silico. Quantitative genome-wide miRNA profiling accurately separated ccRCC from (benign) NRC. Individual differentially expressed miRNAs may potentially serve as diagnostic or prognostic markers or future therapeutic targets in ccRCC. The biological relevance of candidate novel miRNAs is unknown at present.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038298
PMCID: PMC3380046  PMID: 22745662
11.  Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT), a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium 
BMC Urology  2012;12:8.
Background
In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2%) and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%). Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence.
Method
The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day) supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study.
Design
The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT) is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial.
Discussion
This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-8
PMCID: PMC3352119  PMID: 22436453
Selenium; Bladder cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Chemoprevention; Randomized clinical trial; Urology
12.  Hypofractionated intensity modulated irradiation for localized prostate cancer, results from a phase I/II feasibility study 
Background
To assess acute (primary endpoint) and late toxicity, quality of life (QOL), biochemical or clinical failure (secondary endpoints) of a hypofractionated IMRT schedule for prostate cancer (PC).
Methods
38 men with localized PC received 66 Gy (2.64 Gy) to prostate,2 Gy to seminal vesicles (50 Gy total) using IMRT.
Acute toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy (RT), at 1–3 months afterwards using RTOG acute scoring system. Late side effects were scored at 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 36 months after RT using RTOG/EORTC criteria.
Quality of life was assessed by EORTC-C30 questionnaire and PR25 prostate module. Biochemical failure was defined using ASTRO consensus and nadir+2 definition, clinical failure as local, regional or distant relapse.
Results
None experienced grade III-IV toxicity. 10% had no acute genito-urinary (GU) toxicity, 63% grade I; 26% grade II. Maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) scores 0, I, II were 37%, 47% and 16%. Maximal acute toxicity was reached weeks 4–5 and resolved within 4 weeks after RT in 82%.
Grade II rectal bleeding needing coagulation had a peak incidence of 18% at 16 months after RT but is 0% at 24–36 months. One developed a urethral stricture at 2 years (grade II late GU toxicity) successfully dilated until now. QOL urinary symptom scores reached a peak incidence 1 month after RT but normalized 6 months later. Bowel symptom scores before, at 1–6 months showed similar values but rose slowly 2–3 years after RT. Nadir of sexual symptom scores was reached 1–6 months after RT but improved 2–3 years later as well as physical, cognitive and role functional scales.
Emotional, social functional scales were lowest before RT when diagnosis was given but improved later. Two years after RT global health status normalized.
Conclusion
This hypofractionated IMRT schedule for PC using 25 fractions of 2.64 Gy did not result in severe acute side effects. Until now late urethral, rectal toxicities seemed acceptable as well as failure rates. Detailed analysis of QOL questionnaires resulted in the same conclusion.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-2-29
PMCID: PMC1971267  PMID: 17686162

Results 1-12 (12)