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1.  Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga) questionnaire from English 
Background
A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population.
Methods
Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the SAGA questionnaire, which was harmonized among 12 languages: Danish, Dutch, English (UK), Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. During a cognitive debriefing interview, participants were asked to identify any words that were difficult to understand and explain in their own words the meaning of each sentence in the questionnaire. The qualitative analysis was conducted by local linguistic validation teams (original translators, back translator, project manager, interviewer, and survey research expert).
Results
Translations of the SAGA questionnaire from English to 12 European languages were well understood by the participants with an overall comprehension rate across language of 98.9%. In addition, the translations retained the original meaning of the SAGA items and instructions. Comprehension difficulties were identified, and after review by the translation team, minor changes were made to 7 of the 12 translations to improve clarity and comprehension.
Conclusions
Conceptual, semantic, and cultural equivalence of each translation of the SAGA questionnaire was achieved thus confirming linguistic validation.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-40
PMCID: PMC3349573  PMID: 22525050
SAGA; Validation; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Overactive bladder; Goal achievement; Patient-reported questionnaire
2.  Cost-effectiveness analysis of antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder in Spain: A decision-tree model 
BMC Urology  2011;11:9.
Background
Fesoterodine, a new once daily antimuscarinic, has proven to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). To date, no analysis has evaluated the economic costs and benefits associated with fesoterodine, compared to antimuscarinics in Spain. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic value of OAB treatment with fesoterodine relative to extended release tolterodine and solifenacin, from the societal perspective.
Methods
The economic model was based on data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trials comparing fesoterodine and tolterodine extended released (ER). Treatment response rates for solifenacin were extracted from the published literature. Discontinuation and efficacy were based on the results of a 12-week multinational randomized clinical trial extrapolated to 52 weeks. Changes in health related quality of life were assessed with the King's Health Questionnaire, which was transformed into preference-based utility values. Medical costs included (expressed in € 2010) were antimuscarinics, physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads and the costs of OAB-related comorbidities, fractures, skin infections, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions associated with incontinence. Time lost from work was also considered. Univariate sensitivity analyses were also performed.
Results
At week 12, continents accounted for 50.6%, 40.6% and 47.2% of patients in the fesoterodine, tolterodine, and solifenacin groups, respectively. By week 52, the projected proportions of patients remaining on therapy were 33.1%, 26.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The projected quality- adjusted life years (QALY) gain (compared to baseline) over the 52-week simulation period were 0.01014, 0.00846 and 0.00957, respectively. The overall treatment cost was estimated at €1,937, €2,089 and €1,960 for fesoterodine, tolterodine and solifenacin, respectively. Therefore, treatment with fesoterodine resulted in similar overall costs and greater QALY gain than treatment with either tolterodine or solifenacin. Sensitivity analysis showed that these results were robust to all changes performed.
Conclusions
The results of this economic analysis suggest that fesoterodine is a cost-effective alternative to tolterodine and solifenacin for the treatment of patients with OAB in Spain. Fesoterodine provides additional health benefits while maintain a similar level of costs being a cost-effective treatment strategy from a societal perspective.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-9
PMCID: PMC3126790  PMID: 21599928
3.  IL-15 as memory T-cell adjuvant for topical HIV-1 DermaVir vaccine 
Vaccine  2008;26(40):5188-5195.
IL-7 and IL-15 are key cytokines involved in the generation and maintenance of memory CD8+ T-cells. We evaluated these cytokines as molecular adjuvants for topical HIV-1 DermaVir vaccine. We found that mice receiving DermaVir formulated with HIV-1 Gag plasmid in the presence of IL-7- or IL-15-encoding plasmid significantly enhanced Gag-specific central memory T-cells, as measured by a peptide-based cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT. Additionally, IL-15 significantly improved DermaVir-induced Gag-specific effector memory CD8+ T-cell responses, measured by standard IFN-γ ELISPOT. In a DermaVir prime/vaccinia vector boost regimen, the inclusion of IL-15 together with DermaVir significantly improved Gag-specific effector memory T-cell responses. Our study demonstrates that IL-15 is more potent than IL-7 in enhancing HIV-1-specific central memory T-cells induced by topical DermaVir. IL-15 adjuvanted DermaVir might be an alternative prime in a prophylactic vaccine regimen.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.067
PMCID: PMC2582635  PMID: 18462844
topical HIV-1 DermaVir; cytokine adjuvant; memory T-cells

Results 1-3 (3)