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1.  Low Prostate-specific Antigen and No Gleason Score Upgrade Despite More Extensive Cancer During Active Surveillance Predicts Insignificant Prostate Cancer at Radical Prostatectomy 
Urology  2012;80(4):883-888.
OBJECTIVE
To identify parameters that predict insignificant prostate cancer in 67 radical prostatectomies after biopsy reclassification to worse disease on active surveillance.
METHODS
Parameters evaluated at diagnosis and at biopsy reclassification included serum prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific antigen density, number of positive cores, maximum percent involvement of cancer per core, and any interval negative biopsies. Gleason upgrading at biopsy reclassification was also assessed to predict insignificant cancer.
RESULTS
Mean time between diagnosis and radical prostatectomies was 30.3 months with a median of 3 biopsies (range 2–9). Nineteen of 67 (28.4%) had clinically insignificant cancer at radical prostatectomy. In the entire group, there were no variables significantly associated with insignificant cancer at radical prostatectomy. In a subgroup analysis of 37 patients without Gleason pattern 4/5 at biopsy reclassification, 16/37 (43.2%) showed insignificant cancer at radical prostatectomy. In this subgroup, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis was significantly lower in men with insignificant cancer (3.7 ng/mL) vs significant cancer (5.4 ng/mL) (P = .0005). With prostate-specific antigen <4 ng/mL at diagnosis or at biopsy reclassification, 12/13 (92.3%) men showed insignificant cancer, whereas only 4/24 (16.7%) men with prostate-specific antigen >4 ng/mL both at diagnosis and at biopsy reclassification showed insignificant cancer.
CONCLUSION
Most men with biopsy reclassification while on active surveillance have significant disease at radical prostatectomy, justifying their treatment. Low prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis or at biopsy reclassification can predict a high probability of insignificant cancer in the absence of Gleason pattern 4/5 on biopsy. These men may be candidates for continuing active surveillance.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2012.05.045
PMCID: PMC3715088  PMID: 22921697
2.  Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Clinical and Cytomorphologic Characteristics 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(2):93-99.
Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm with predominantly exocrine acinar differentiation and is seen primarily in older men (mean age, 62 years). The presenting symptoms are usually non-specific, and jaundice is often not present. Symptoms relating to the overproduction and release of lipase into the circulation are present in 10-15% of patients. Characteristic cytomorphologic features include a population of cells with minimal pleomorphism, eccentrically placed nuclei with a single prominent nucleoli and moderate hyperchromasia. The cytoplasm is finely granular, and the background may contain granular debris secondary to cytolysis. A significant proportion of the cases also have a minor neuroendocrine component or scattered neuroendocrine cells. Approximately 50% of patients have metastatic disease at presentation, often restricted to the regional lymph nodes and liver. The prognosis is poor, only slightly better than that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.2.93
PMCID: PMC3647135  PMID: 23667367
Carcinoma, acinar cell; Pancreas
3.  A tissue biopsy-based epigenetic multiplex PCR assay for prostate cancer detection 
BMC Urology  2012;12:16.
Background
PSA-directed prostate cancer screening leads to a high rate of false positive identifications and an unnecessary biopsy burden. Epigenetic biomarkers have proven useful, exhibiting frequent and abundant inactivation of tumor suppressor genes through such mechanisms. An epigenetic, multiplex PCR test for prostate cancer diagnosis could provide physicians with better tools to help their patients. Biomarkers like GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 have demonstrated involvement with prostate cancer, with the latter two genes playing prominent roles in the field effect. The epigenetic states of these genes can be used to assess the likelihood of cancer presence or absence.
Results
An initial test cohort of 30 prostate cancer-positive samples and 12 cancer-negative samples was used as basis for the development and optimization of an epigenetic multiplex assay based on the GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 genes, using methylation specific PCR (MSP). The effect of prostate needle core biopsy sample volume and age of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples was evaluated on an independent follow-up cohort of 51 cancer-positive patients. Multiplexing affects copy number calculations in a consistent way per assay. Methylation ratios are therefore altered compared to the respective singleplex assays, but the correlation with patient outcome remains equivalent. In addition, tissue-biopsy samples as small as 20 μm can be used to detect methylation in a reliable manner. The age of FFPE-samples does have a negative impact on DNA quality and quantity.
Conclusions
The developed multiplex assay appears functionally similar to individual singleplex assays, with the benefit of lower tissue requirements, lower cost and decreased signal variation. This assay can be applied to small biopsy specimens, down to 20 microns, widening clinical applicability. Increasing the sample volume can compensate the loss of DNA quality and quantity in older samples.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-16
PMCID: PMC3431995  PMID: 22672250
GSTP1; APC; RASSF1; Methylation; Epigenetics; Prostate cancer; Diagnosis; Multiplex; Singleplex; MSP

Results 1-3 (3)