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1.  Positive surgical margins in nephron-sparing surgery: risk factors and therapeutic consequences 
The increased use of nephron-sparing surgery to treat localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lends weight to the question of the value of microscopically positive surgical margins (PSM) in cases with a tumor bed macroscopically free of residual tumor. The aim of this article is to highlight the data available on risk factors for PSM, their clinical relevance, and possible therapeutic consequences. For this purpose, publications on the incidence and relevance of PSM after partial nephrectomy from the last 15 years were examined and evaluated. We summarize that PSM are generally rare, regardless of the surgical procedure, and are seen more often in connection with an imperative indication for nephron-sparing surgery as well as a central tumor location. Most studies describe that PSM lead to a moderate increase in the rate of local relapses, but no study has thus far been able to demonstrate an association with shorter tumor-specific overall survival. Intraoperative frozen section analysis had no positive influence on the risk of definite PSM in most trials. Therefore, we conclude that PSM should definitely be avoided. However, in cases with a macroscopically tumor-free intraoperative resection bed, they should lead to close surveillance of the affected kidney and not to immediate (re)intervention.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-252
PMCID: PMC4249770  PMID: 25103683
Renal cell carcinoma; Positive surgical margins; Therapeutic relevance; R1; Prognosis; Survival review
2.  Survival advantage of partial over radical nephrectomy in patients presenting with localized renal cell carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:372.
Background
Partial nephrectomy (PN) preserves renal function and has become the standard approach for T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there is still an ongoing debate as to which patients will actually derive greater benefit from partial than from radical nephrectomy (RN). The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of the type of surgery on overall survival (OS) in patients with localized RCC.
Methods
Renal surgery was performed in 4326 patients with localized RCC (pT ≤ 3a N/M0) at six German tertiary care centers from 1980 to 2010: RN in 2955 cases (68.3%), elective (ePN) in 1108 (25.6%), and imperative partial nephrectomy (iPN) in 263 (6.1%) cases. The median follow-up for all patients was 63 months. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to identify prognosticators for OS.
Results
PN was performed significantly more often than RN in patients presenting with lower tumor stages, higher RCC differentiation, and non-clear cell histology. Accordingly, the calculated 5 (10)-year OS rates were 90.0 (74.6)% for ePN, 83.9 (57.5)% for iPN, and 81.2 (64.7)% for RN (p < 0.001). However, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor diameter and differentiation, histological subtype, and the year of surgery showed that ePN compared to RN still qualified as an independent factor for improved OS (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94, p = 0.008).
Conclusion
Even allowing for the weaknesses of this retrospective analysis, our multicenter study indicates that in patients with localized RCC, PN appears to be associated with better OS than RN irrespective of age or tumor size.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-372
PMCID: PMC4038042  PMID: 24885955
3.  Elevated C-reactive protein values predict nodal metastasis in patients with penile cancer 
BMC Urology  2013;13:53.
Background
The nodal status is a strong predictor for cancer specific death in patients with penile carcinoma, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level at diagnosis has recently been shown to be associated with poor clinical outcome in various solid malignancies. Therefore, this retrospective study was performed to evaluate the association between preoperative CRP levels and the incidence of nodal metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis.
Methods
The analysis included 51 penile cancer patients who underwent either radical or partial penectomy for pT1-4 penile cancer between 1990 and 2010. The nodal status was correlated with patient and tumor specific characteristics.
Results
Sixteen (31%) patients had lymph node metastasis at the time of penile cancer surgery. Nodal status was associated with tumor stage but did not correlate significantly with tumor grade. In contrast, high presurgical CRP levels were significantly associated with the diagnosis of nodal involvement (p = 0.04). The optimal CRP cut-off value to predict lymph node metastasis was set at 20 mg/l based on ROC analysis.
Conclusions
Since a high preoperative serum CRP level was closely correlated with nodal disease, it could be used as an additional marker to help identify patients with penile cancer who may benefit from inguinal lymph node dissection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-13-53
PMCID: PMC4016472  PMID: 24148787
Penile cancer; Biomarker; C-reactive protein; Nodal disease; Prognosis; Survival
4.  High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:223.
Background
High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis.
Methods
This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months.
Results
A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ≤ 15 mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (≥pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15 mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (≥pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15 mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer.
Conclusions
A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-223
PMCID: PMC3649950  PMID: 23642165
SCC; Penis; Penile cancer; Biomarker; C-reactive protein; Prognosis; Survival
5.  Preoperative serum C- reactive protein: a prognostic marker in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:101.
Background
To analyse the prognostic significance of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) serum level in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC).
Methods
We evaluated 158 UUT-UC patients who had undergone surgery in the University Hospital of Hannover (MHH). 143 (89.4%) suffered from cancer in the renal pelvis, 13 (8.1%) patients presented with tumour located in the ureter. A preoperative CRP value was available for 115 patients. The mean (median) follow-up for these patients was 28.3 (15.1) months.
Results
The median (mean) CRP value of all evaluable patients was 10.0 (40.7) mg/l. The CRP-level, stratified into two subgroups (CRP ≤5 vs. >5 mg/l), correlated significantly with muscle invasive tumour stage (36.4 vs. 78.9%; p<0.001), the risk of presenting nodal disease (4.5 vs. 26.8%; p=0.002) and distant metastasis (2.3 vs. 16.9%; p<0.016). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) rates were 54.2 and 26.4% for patients with preoperative CRP levels ≤ and >5 mg/l, respectively (p<0.006). Next to age and the presence of metastasis, multivariate analysis also identified CRP as a continuous variable as an independent prognosticator for CSS.
Conclusions
A high preoperative serum CRP level is associated with locally advanced and metastatic disease in patients with UUT-UC. Its routine use could allow better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of UUT-UC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-101
PMCID: PMC3606347  PMID: 23497335
UUT-UC; Biomarker; C-reactive protein; Aggressivness; Prognosis; Survival
6.  Does Obesity Influence the Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in Patients Treated with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Targeted Therapy? 
The Oncologist  2011;16(11):1565-1571.
Whether or not obesity (measured in terms of body mass index, body surface area, visceral fat area, and s.c. fat area) can predict the long-term prognosis of renal cell cancer patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy is examined.
Background.
Obesity increases the risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it has only recently been identified as an independent positive prognostic factor for localized RCC.
Objective.
To determine whether obesity influences long-term prognosis in metastatic RCC patients receiving vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy.
Design, Setting, and Participants.
In 116 patients with metastatic RCC who received antiangiogenic agents (sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, bevacizumab) in 2005–2010, we evaluated whether body mass index (BMI), a body surface area (BSA) above the European average, the visceral fat area (VFA), or s.c. fat area (SFA) were of predictive relevance.
Measurements.
BMI was categorized based on current World Health Organization definitions. BSA was stratified according to the European average for men (1.98 m2) and women (1.74 m2). VFA and SFA were dichotomized using the median of the observed distribution as the cutoff. The primary endpoints of this study were time to progression and overall survival time.
Results and Limitations.
The whole population had median progression-free and overall survival times of 8.3 months and 20.5 months, respectively. In contrast to BMI and BSA, higher than average VFA and SFA levels were significant predictors of longer progression-free and overall survival times. The major limitations of this study are its retrospective design and its heterogeneous patient population.
Conclusion.
This is the first study to identify high VFA and SFA levels as positive predictive biomarkers for patients who receive first-line antiangiogenic agents for metastatic RCC.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0213
PMCID: PMC3233291  PMID: 22020210
Metastatic kidney cancer; Prognosis; Body mass index; BMI; Body surface area; BSA; Visceral fat; Subcutaneous fat; Obesity; Overweight
7.  Validation of CRP as prognostic marker for renal cell carcinoma in a large series of patients 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:399.
Background
To evaluate the prognostic significance of the pre-operative C-reactive protein (CRP) serum level in patients with renal cell cancer (RCC).
Methods
We evaluated 1,161 RCC patients with complete patient and tumour specific characteristics as well as information about their pre-operative CRP-level, who had undergone either radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery at two German high-volume centres (University Hospitals of Hannover and Ulm). The mean follow-up was 54 months.
Results
The CRP-level, stratified to three subgroups (CRP ≤ 4, 4–10, and >10 mg/l), correlated significantly with tumour stage (p < 0.001), the risk of presenting nodal disease (2.1, 3.1, and 16.4%) and distant metastasis (2.9, 8.6, and 30.0%; p < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) rates were 89.4, 77.9, and 49.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified CRP as an independent prognosticator for CSS as well as overall survival (p < 0.001). Patients with a CRP of 4–10 and >10 mg/l had a 1.67 and 2.48 fold higher risk of dying due to their RCC compared to those with a pre-operative CRP ≤4 mg/l, respectively.
Conclusions
A high preoperative serum CRP level is an independent predictor of poor survival in patients with RCC. Its routine use could allow better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of RCC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-399
PMCID: PMC3502607  PMID: 22958305
Renal cell cancer; Biomarker; C-reactive protein; Prognosis; Survival
8.  Renal Cell Carcinoma Update: News from the AUA, EAU, and ASCO Annual Meetings 2011 
ISRN Urology  2012;2012:748235.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most important urologic malignancies with a continuously growing incidence and health economic relevance. In 2011, several hundred articles, abstracts, and lectures have been presented at the leading global urooncologic congresses. This review was composed to give an overview on the flood of novel findings dealing with diagnostics and therapy of both localized and advanced RCC. The most clinically relevant data are discussed in detail.
doi:10.5402/2012/748235
PMCID: PMC3384960  PMID: 22779004
9.  Caveolin 1 protein expression in renal cell carcinoma predicts survival 
BMC Urology  2011;11:25.
Background
Caveolae play a significant role in disease phenotypes such as cancer, diabetes, bladder dysfunction, and muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the caveolin-1 (CAV1) protein expression in renal cell cancer (RCC) and to determine its potential prognostic relevance.
Methods
289 clear cell RCC tissue specimens were collected from patients undergoing surgery for renal tumors. Both cytoplasmic and membranous CAV1 expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical variables. Survival analysis was carried out for 169 evaluable patients with a median follow up of 80.5 months (interquartile range (IQR), 24.5 - 131.7 months).
Results
A high CAV1 expression in the tumor cell cytoplasm was significantly associated with male sex (p = 0.04), a positive nodal status (p = 0.04), and poor tumor differentiation (p = 0.04). In contrast, a higher than average (i.e. > median) CAV1 expression in tumor cell membranes was only linked to male sex (p = 0.03). Kaplan-Meier analysis disclosed significant differences in 5-year overall (51.4 vs. 75.2%, p = 0.001) and tumor specific survival (55.3 vs. 80.1%, p = 0.001) for patients with higher and lower than average cytoplasmic CAV1 expression levels, respectively. Applying multivariable Cox regression analysis a high CAV1 protein expression level in the tumor cell cytoplasm could be identified as an independent poor prognostic marker of both overall (p = 0.02) and tumor specific survival (p = 0.03) in clear cell RCC patients.
Conclusion
Over expression of caveolin-1 in the tumour cell cytoplasm predicts a poor prognosis of patients with clear cell RCC. CAV1 is likely to be a useful prognostic marker and may play an important role in tumour progression. Therefore, our data encourage further investigations to enlighten the role of CAV1 and its function as diagnostic and prognostic marker in serum and/or urine of RCC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-25
PMCID: PMC3266190  PMID: 22152020

Results 1-9 (9)