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1.  Intravesical administration of pirarubicin against superficial bladder cancer: Relationship between tumor tissue concentration and exposure time in the bladder or therapeutic effect 
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tissue concentrations and exposure times or therapeutic effect of an anthracycline anticancer drug, pirarubicin, in bladder cancer tissue after single intravesical administration against superficial bladder cancer. The concentrations of pirarubicin in tumor tissues and serum were measured at designated collection times after a single intravesical administration of pirarubicin (30 mg) in 22 patients with superficial bladder cancer. A wide range of concentrations of pirarubicin in bladder cancer tissue was observed (2.3–125 μg/g of tissue), although serum pirarubicin concentrations were not detected in any of the patients. Recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-BT) was observed in 2 patients (9%). The concentration of pirarubicin in the tumor tissue tended to be higher as the exposure time increased. There was a weak relationship between the pirarubicin tissue concentration and tumor size. However, no significant relationship between tissue pirarubicin concentrations and the prophylactic effect against intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer after TUR-BT was observed. All patients had no adverse events, such as bladder irritation and local toxicity, caused by the treatment with pirarubicin. These findings suggest that prior to single intravesical administration of pirarubicin to patients with superficial bladder cancer the exposure time and tumor size should be considered.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.315
PMCID: PMC3440819  PMID: 22977595
superficial bladder cancer; intravesical chemotherapy; pirarubicin; tumor tissue concentration; exposure time; prophylactic effect against recurrence
2.  Association between gefitinib and hemorrhagic cystitis and severely contracted bladder: a case report 
BMC Urology  2010;10:6.
Background
Gefitinib remains an excellent treatment option for patients with a variety of cancers, including non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinicians must be aware of the potential of gefitinib to cause an inflammatory reaction in the skin, lungs and bladder.
Case Presentation
We present a case on hemorrhagic cystitis and severaly contracted bladder in a patient with NSCLC on gefitinib.
Conclusions
Further studies are needed to substantiate the association of gefitinib therapy with hemorrhagic cystitis and contracted bladder.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-6
PMCID: PMC2839984  PMID: 20187929
3.  The use of zoledronic acid in Japanese men with stage D2 prostate cancer 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(1):13-16.
Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a new generation bisphosphonate with improved efficacy benefits over pamidronate in preclinical testing. In addition, ZOL is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy. ZOL is also the first bisphosphonate to demonstrate efficacy in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors other than breast cancer, such as prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated ZOL treatment in 17 Japanese men with advanced prostate cancer, treated at the Aichi Medical University Hospital between August 2006 and November 2007. The 17 patients had biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer and were found to harbor bone metastasis upon bone scintigraphy. ZOL was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 mg over 15 min every 4 weeks. ZOL was well tolerated with mild renal dysfunction in 2 patients (11.8%), while 1 patient (5.8%) developed skin rash. No significant side effects were observed. Subjective improvement in bone pain was reported in 14 patients (32.4%). ZOL, therefore, is a safe and effective drug that remains an important component of the urologist’s armamentarium against advanced prostate cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000002
PMCID: PMC3436424  PMID: 22966248
zoledronic acid; advanced prostate cancer; bone metastasis
4.  Differentially Expressed Drl and Drl-2 Play Opposing Roles in Wnt5 Signaling during Drosophila Olfactory System Development 
In Drosophila, odor information received by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is processed by glomeruli, which are organized in a stereotypic manner in the antennal lobe (AL). This glomerular organization is regulated by Wnt5 signaling. In the embryonic CNS, Wnt5 signaling is transduced by the Drl receptor, a member of the Ryk family. During development of the olfactory system, however, it is antagonized by Drl. Here, we identify Drl-2 as a receptor mediating Wnt5 signaling. Drl is found in the neurites of brain cells in the AL and specific glia, whereas Drl-2 is predominantly found in subsets of growing ORN axons. A drl-2 mutation produces only mild deficits in glomerular patterning, but when it is combined with a drl mutation, the phenotype is exacerbated and more closely resembles the Wnt5 phenotype. Wnt5 overexpression in ORNs induces aberrant glomeruli positioning. This phenotype is ameliorated in the drl-2 mutant background, indicating that Drl-2 mediates Wnt5 signaling. In contrast, forced expression of Drl-2 in the glia of drl mutants rescues the glomerular phenotype caused by the loss of antagonistic Drl function. Therefore, Drl-2 can also antagonize Wnt5 signaling. Additionally, our genetic data suggest that Drl localized to developing glomeruli mediates Wnt5 signaling. Thus, these two members of the Ryk family are capable of carrying out a similar molecular function, but they can play opposing roles in Wnt5 signaling, depending on the type of cells in which they are expressed. These molecules work cooperatively to establish the olfactory circuitry in Drosophila.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2821-08.2009
PMCID: PMC2749065  PMID: 19369566
5.  Role of Plasma Proteins in Pharmacokinetics of Micafungin, an Antifungal Antibiotic, in Analbuminemic Rats ▿  
There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of micafungin and expression of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2/Mrp2) between analbuminemic and Sprague-Dawley rats. Micafungin bound strongly to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and moderately to gamma globulin. These results suggest that HDL and gamma globulin contribute to the pharmacokinetics of micafungin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00396-08
PMCID: PMC2533450  PMID: 18591270

Results 1-5 (5)