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1.  The role of micro RNAs let7c, 100 and 218 expression and their target RAS, C-MYC, BUB1, RB, SMARCA5, LAMB3 and Ki-67 in prostate cancer 
Clinics  2013;68(5):652-657.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study is to verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c, 100 and 218 using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray representative of localized and metastasized the lymph nodes and bone prostate cancer.
METHODS:
To verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c (C-MYC, BUB1, RAS) 100 (SMARCA5, RB) and 218 (LAMB3) and cell proliferation (Ki-67) we used immunohistochemistry and computerized image system ImageJ MacBiophotonics in three tissue microarrays representative of localized prostate cancer and lymph node and bone metastases. miRNA expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR using 60 paraffin blocks to construct the tissue microarray representative of localized disease.
RESULTS:
RAS expression was increased in localized prostate cancer and bone metastases compared to the lymph nodes (p = 0.017). RB showed an increase in expression from localized prostate cancer to lymph node and bone metastasis (p = 0.036). LAMB3 was highly expressed in localized and lymph node metastases (p<0.001). Cell proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 showed an increase from localized prostate cancer to metastases (p<0.001). We did not found any relationship between C-MYC (p = 0.253), BUB1 (p = 0.649) and SMARCA5 (p = 0.315) protein expression with prognosis or tumor behavior.
CONCLUSION:
We found that the expression of RAS, RB, LAMB3 and Ki-67 changed in the different stages of prostate cancer. Furthermore, we confirmed the overexpression of the miRNAs let7c, 100 and 218 in localized prostate cancer but failed to show the control of protein expression by the putative controller miRNAs using immunohistochemistry.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(05)12
PMCID: PMC3654318  PMID: 23778407
Prostate Cancer; Prognosis; Tumor Markers; Micro RNA; Immunohistochemistry; RAS; C-MYC; BUB1; SMARCA5; LAMB3; Ki-67, RB
2.  Increased expression of MMP-9 and IL-8 are correlated with poor prognosis of Bladder Cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:18.
Background
Extracellular matrix homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and its specific inhibitors, are expressed in a reproducible, specific pattern and if the profiles are related to prognosis in Bladder Cancer (BC).
Methods
MMP-9, MMP-2 and its specific inhibitors expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in fresh-frozen malignant tissue collected from 40 patients with BC submitted to transurethral resection of bladder. The control group consisted of normal bladder tissue from five patients who had undergone retropubic prostatectomy to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Results
MMP-9 was overexpressed in 59.0 % of patients, and MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-14, RECK and IL-8 was underexpressed in most of the patients. Regarding prognostic parameters we observed that high-grade tumors exhibited significantly higher levels of MMP-9 and IL-8 (p = 0.012, p = 0.003). Invasive tumors (pT1-pT2) had higher expression levels of MMP-9 than superficial tumors (pTa) (p = 0.026). The same was noted for IL-8 that was more expressed by invasive tumors (p = 0.015, p = 0.048). Most importantly tumor recurrence was related with higher levels of both MMP-9 (p = 0.003) and IL-8 (p = 0.005).
Conclusion
We have demonstrated that the overexpression of MMP-9 and higher expression of IL-8 are related to unfavorable prognostic factors of urothelial bladder cancer and tumor recurrence and may be useful in the follow up of the patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-18
PMCID: PMC3424138  PMID: 22695075
Bladder cancer; Matrix metalloproteinase; Prognosis; Diagnosis; Gene expression
3.  miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:14.
Background
Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA) mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line.
Materials and methods
To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
Results
The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25) the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12), and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16). From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression) 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-14
PMCID: PMC3431982  PMID: 22642976
Prostate cancer; Prognosis; RECK; Micro RNA; Metaloproteinases

Results 1-3 (3)