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1.  Utility of serial urinary cytology in the initial evaluation of the patient with microscopic hematuria 
BMC Urology  2009;9:12.
Background
We determine the utility of serial urinary cytologies in patients presenting with microscopic hematuria who were evaluated with upper and lower urinary tract studies to rule out a malignancy.
Methods
Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with the diagnosis of microscopic hematuria were evaluated at an inner-city tertiary care hospital. Of these 239 patients, 182 patients had 405 cytologies obtained as part of their evaluation for hematuria. In addition, all patients had their lower urinary tract and upper tract thoroughly evaluated.
Results
Two hundred and seventy four cytology samples were read as normal, 104 (26%) as atypia, 7 (2%) as suspicious/malignant, and 20 (5%) as unsatisfactory. Seventeen patients (9.3%) had biopsy confirmed bladder cancer. Of these 17 patients, 2 had normal cytology, 11 had atypia, and 5 had suspicious/malignant. No patient had a positive cytology and a negative biopsy. Overall the number of hematuric patients harboring bladder cancer was small (7%). Cytology #1 detected 4 cases of cancer, cytology #2 detected an additional case and cytology #3 did not detect any additional cancers.
Conclusion
Because of this low prevalence of bladder cancer in patients presenting with microscopic hematuria and the low sensitivity of detecting bladder cancers, the utility of urinary cytology in the initial evaluation of patients with hematuria may be minimal. The exact role of urinary cytology in the evaluation of hematuria is unknown.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-9-12
PMCID: PMC2751768  PMID: 19744317
2.  Phase II trial of isoflavone in prostate-specific antigen recurrent prostate cancer after previous local therapy 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:132.
Background-
Data exist that demonstrate isoflavones' potent antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells. We evaluated the efficacy of isoflavone in patients with PSA recurrent prostate cancer after prior therapy. We postulated that isoflavone therapy would slow the rate of rise of serum PSA.
Methods-
Twenty patients with rising PSA after prior local therapy were enrolled in this open-labeled, Phase II, nonrandomized trial (Trial registration # NCT00596895). Patients were treated with soy milk containing 47 mg of isoflavonoid per 8 oz serving three times per day for 12 months. Serum PSA, testosterone, lipids, isoflavone levels (genistein, daidzein, and equol), and quality of life (QOL) were measured at various time points from 0 to 12 months. PSA outcome was evaluated.
Results-
Within the mixed regression model, it was estimated that PSA had increased 56% per year before study entry and only increased 20% per year for the 12-month study period (p = 0.05). Specifically, the slope of PSA after study entry was significantly lower than that before study entry in 6 patients and the slope of PSA after study entry was significantly higher than before study entry in 2 patients. For the remaining 12 patients, the change in slope was statistically insignificant. Nearly two thirds of the patients were noted to have significant levels of free equol in their serum while on therapy.
Conclusion-
Dietary intervention with isoflavone supplementation may have biologic activity in men with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer as shown by a decline in the slope of PSA. This study may lend support to the literature that nutritional supplements have biologic activity in prostate cancer and therefore, further studies with these agents in randomized clinical trials should be encouraged.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-132
PMCID: PMC2394534  PMID: 18471323
3.  Outcomes of men who present with elevated serum PSA (>20 ng/mL) to an inner-city hospital. 
INTRODUCTION: We report the incidence, clinicopathologic features, and outcomes of men who presented to an inner-city hospital with serum PSA >20 ng/ml. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five-hundred-sixty men underwent a transrectal ultrasound needle-guided biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA >4 ng/ml with or without an abnormal digital rectal examination. RESULTS: Of the 560 men, 65 (12%) were found to have a serum PSA >20 ng/ml, and 57 (10%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. In the group of 57 men with cancer, the positive predictive value of PSA alone was 72% for PSA levels of 20-29.99 ng/ml and 100% for PSA >30 ng/ml. Of the 57 men, 18 underwent definitive therapy, 24 underwent androgen deprivation, 8 refused treatment or were lost to follow-up, and 7 were treated on protocol. An additional seven men with cancer refused therapy or were lost to follow-up, thus giving a total of 15 (26%) men who were noncompliant to medical advice. CONCLUSIONS: Serum PSA >30 ng/ml is an almost certain predictor of the presence of prostate cancer. Aggressive prostate cancer education and screening programs are needed in our inner cities in order to detect prostate cancer at an earlier, treatable stage.
PMCID: PMC2574301  PMID: 17722667
4.  Prostate cancer screening and detection in inner-city and underserved men. 
CONTEXT: In the era of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, the incidence of prostate cancer has increased dramatically. Simultaneously however, stage migration has occurred, and treatment outcomes have improved. Inner-city men have lower screening rates and, thus, may be diagnosed with more advanced disease that it less likely to be successfully treated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the detection rate of prostate cancer and tumor stage at presentation in inner-city men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A retrospective cohort of 368 men underwent transrectal ultrasound needle-guided biopsy at an inner-city hospital from January 2003 to May 2005. Clinical and pathologic data were collected and analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinic and hospital records were reviewed for several key outcomes, including prostate cancer incidence, tumor stage and tumor grade. RESULTS: The median age of the cohort was 67 +/- 9.1 years (range, 23-93 years). Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 44% of subjects (161/368). The median PSA level at the time of diagnosis was significantly higher in African-American men than in Caucasian men (9.82 vs. 5.97 ng/mL, P=0.008). Abnormally high serum PSA levels (>20 ng/mL) were present in disproportionately more African-American men than Caucasian men with prostate cancer (32.9% vs. 19.7% P=0.011). African-American men in this inner-city cohort also had a higher incidence of advanced disease or distant metastasis (T3/T4, N1, or M1) than did Caucasians (16.1% vs. 3.8%; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with inner-city Caucasian men, disproportionately more inner-city, African-American men present with advanced prostate cancer. This observation warrants prostate cancer education and consideration of early detection programs in underserved inner-city communities.
PMCID: PMC2569232  PMID: 16623063

Results 1-4 (4)