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1.  Relevance of nuclear receptor expression in a Tchreg cell line, HOZOT: RXRα and PPARγ negatively regulate IFN-γ production 
Results in Immunology  2012;2:158-165.
Nuclear receptors (NRs) have recently received much attention for their newly discovered roles in T cell development, as exemplified by RARα (Treg cells) and RORγt (Th17 cells). In previous studies, we characterized a new type of T cell subset, designated as Tchreg (cytotoxic, helper, and regulatory T) cells, in terms of its cytokine signature. In this study, we investigated the expression and functional relevance of NRs in Tchreg cells by performing mRNA profiling of HOZOT, a cord blood-derived Tchreg cell line. We identified eleven inducible and eight constitutively expressed NRs in HOZOT. Among these NRs, RXRα and PPARγ showed features of signature NRs of Tchreg cells because they were selectively expressed in HOZOT compared with other T cell subsets. These NRs exhibited contrasting expression patterns, as RXRα was independent of anti-CD3/28 antibody stimulation while PPARγ was stimulated-dependent. Upon agonist treatment, both proteins translocated to the nucleus and inhibited IFN-γ production through binding to the promoter region of the IFN-γ gene. These results provide new insight into the roles of RXRα and PPARγ in T cell biology, especially in their biological relevance in Tchreg cells.
PMCID: PMC3862339  PMID: 24371580
2.  The primary therapy chosen for patients with localized prostate cancer between the university hospital and its affiliated hospitals in Nara Uro-oncological research group registration 
BMC Urology  2011;11:6.
We investigated the differences between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the primary therapy actually conducted for prostate cancer patients in Nara, Japan.
The distribution of primary therapy and clinical characteristics of 2303 prostate cancer patients - diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 at Nara Medical University and its 23 affiliated hospitals - were assessed. Moreover, the preferential primary therapy for the patients at each clinical stage (cT1-T3bN0M0) conceived by the primary doctors was investigated and compared to the actual therapy.
Of all patients, 51% received primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT), 30% underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), and 14% received radiation therapy (RT). The preferential primary therapy for cT1-2N0M0 was RP (92%) while 38% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 40%). For cT3aN0M0, the preferential primary therapy was both RP and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) while 58% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 16%, EBRT: 24%). For cT3bN0M0, the most preferential primary therapy was EBRT (46%) while 67% of the patients actually received PADT (EBRT: 21%). This trend was more notable in the affiliated hospitals than in the University hospital. The hospitals with lower volume of RP per year significantly conducted PADT compared with those with higher volume of RP.
PADT was commonly used to treat localized prostate cancer as well as locally advanced prostate cancer in Japan. There was a definite discrepancy between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the actual therapy provided to the patients.
PMCID: PMC3095576  PMID: 21524283
3.  miR-155, a Modulator of FOXO3a Protein Expression, Is Underexpressed and Cannot Be Upregulated by Stimulation of HOZOT, a Line of Multifunctional Treg 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16841.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating post-transcriptional gene repression in a variety of immunological processes. In particular, much attention has been focused on their roles in regulatory T (Treg) cells which are crucial for maintaining peripheral tolerance and controlling T cell responses. Recently, we established a novel type of human Treg cell line, termed HOZOT, multifunctional cells exhibiting a CD4+CD8+ phenotype. In this study, we performed miRNA profiling to identify signature miRNAs of HOZOT, and therein identified miR-155. Although miR-155 has also been characterized as a signature miRNA for FOXP3+ natural Treg (nTreg) cells, it was expressed quite differently in HOZOT cells. Under both stimulatory and non-stimulatory conditions, miR-155 expression remained at low levels in HOZOT, while its expression in nTreg and conventional T cells remarkably increased after stimulation. We next searched candidate target genes of miR-155 through bioinformatics, and identified FOXO3a, a negative regulator of Akt signaling, as a miR-155 target gene. Further studies by gain- and loss-of-function experiments supported a role for miR-155 in the regulation of FOXO3a protein expression in conventional T and HOZOT cells.
PMCID: PMC3033424  PMID: 21304824
4.  A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography 
A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils. Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily. The patient’s biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile duct. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient’s eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.
PMCID: PMC4146980  PMID: 17461504
Eosinophilic cholangitis; Sclerosing cholangitis; Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; Cholangioscopy; Intraductal ultrasonography

Results 1-4 (4)