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1.  The role of single instillation chemotherapy in patients who receive subsequent bacillus Calmette-Guérin: A retrospective single centre study, and systematic review of the literature 
This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of immediate intravesical chemotherapy and subsequent bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.
The study population consisted of 207 intermediate- or high-risk patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent an induction course of BCG between 1993 and 2007. We introduced single immediate instillation of 50 mg epirubicin for all cases in 2004, and thus earlier cases could be considered as historical controls. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). For cumulative analysis, we systematically reviewed studies indexed in databases. Including ours, the records of 856 patients from a total of 7 studies, including ours, were finally analyzed.
In our cohort, the 5-year RFS in patients who received the combination therapy was 66.2%, compared to 55.2% in the BCG alone group (p = 0.149). Multivariate analysis on tumour recurrence showed that patients with the combination therapy had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 (p = 0.189). A subsequent literature review revealed that RFS rates in the combination groups were higher than those in the corresponding BCG alone groups in 4/7 studies (p = 0.02–0.15), and lower in 1 study (p = 0.51). We identified 5 studies which examined a HR for combination therapy, and performed a cumulative analysis. Adding a single chemo-instillation prior to BCG resulted in a significant reduction in tumour recurrence (summary HR 0.69, p = 0.010).
Our analysis suggested that the combination of single chemo-instillation with subsequent BCG therapy exhibited an additive effect against potential tumour recurrence.
PMCID: PMC4514484  PMID: 26279708
2.  Preoperative parameters to predict incidental (T1a and T1b) prostate cancer 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2014;8(11-12):E815-E820.
Prostate cancer has been found incidentally in transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) specimens without prior diagnosis in 5% to 13% of the patients. We evaluated whether incidental prostate cancer (stages T1a and T1b) could be predicted preoperatively.
TURP was performed in 307 patients between 2006 and 2011. Patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, total prostate volume, transitional zone volume, PSA density, history of needle biopsy, and pathological diagnosis on TURP specimen were assessed. We analyzed the association between these parameters and prostate cancer detection.
Incidental prostate cancer was found in 31 patients (10.1%), and 13 cases (4.2%) had cancer with T1b and/or Gleason ≥7. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥75 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.58, p = 0.022), prostate volume ≤50 cc (OR 4.11, p < 0.001), and the absence of preoperative needle biopsy despite PSA ≥4 ng/mL (OR 2.65, p = 0.046) were independent risk factors. In patients who had 2 or 3 of these risk factors, incidental prostate cancer and cancer with T1b and/or Gleason ≥7 were observed in 25% to 50% and 16% to 25% cases, respectively.
Older patient age, small prostate volume, and the absence of previous needle biopsy (despite a high PSA level) might be independent risk factors for detecting incidental prostate cancer, although external validation is warranted to confirm our results.
PMCID: PMC4250246  PMID: 25485009
3.  Efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape compared with transobturator tape in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: analysis of learning curve, perioperative changes of voiding function 
BMC Urology  2011;11:13.
In this study, by comparing TVT surgery and TOT surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women, the characteristics and learning curves of both operative methods were studied.
A total of 83 women with stress urinary incontinence treated with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) (n = 38) or transobturator tape (TOT) (n = 45) at Saiseikai Central Hospital between April 2004 and September 2009 were included. We compare the outcomes and learning curves between TVT surgery and TOT surgery. In statistical analysis, Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney's U test were used.
The surgical durations were 37.4 ± 15.7 minutes with TVT surgery and 31.0 ± 8.3 minutes with TOT surgery. A longer period of time was required for TVT surgery (p = 0.025). The residual urine at post-operative day 1 was higher in TVT surgery (25.9 ± 44.2 ml) than in TOT surgery (10.6 ± 19.2 ml) (p = 0.0452). The surgical duration of TVT surgery was shortened after the operator had performed 15 operations (p = 0.019).
In comparison of TVT surgery and TOT surgery, the surgical duration of TVT surgery was longer and the residual urine of TVT surgery was higher at post-operative day 1. Surgical experience could shorten the duration of TVT surgery.
PMCID: PMC3141808  PMID: 21726448
Stress urinary incontinence; TVT surgery; TOT surgery

Results 1-3 (3)