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Dissecting the Nanoscale Distributions and Functions of Microtubule-End-Binding Proteins EB1 and ch-TOG in Interphase HeLa Cells
Recently, the EB1 and XMAP215/TOG families of microtubule binding proteins have been demonstrated to bind autonomously to the growing plus ends of microtubules and regulate their behaviour in in vitro systems. However, their functional redundancy or difference in cells remains obscure. Here, we compared the nanoscale distributions of EB1 and ch-TOG along microtubules using high-resolution microscopy techniques, and also their roles in microtubule organisation in interphase HeLa cells. The ch-TOG accumulation sites protruded ∼100 nm from the EB1 comets. Overexpression experiments showed that ch-TOG and EB1 did not interfere with each other’s localisation, confirming that they recognise distinct regions at the ends of microtubules. While both EB1 and ch-TOG showed similar effects on microtubule plus end dynamics and additively increased microtubule dynamicity, only EB1 exhibited microtubule-cell cortex attachment activity. These observations indicate that EB1 and ch-TOG regulate microtubule organisation differently via distinct regions in the plus ends of microtubules.
Renal cell carcinoma with a tumor thrombus in the ureter: a case report
Renal cell carcinoma (RCCs) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. When RCC progresses, it is known to form tumor thrombus in the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava. However, RCC does not normally form tumor thrombus in the ureter or renal pelvis.
A 43-year-old man presented to our department for the treatment of a renal tumor with asymptomatic gross hematuria. In a dynamic CT study, contrast enhancement revealed a tumor suspected to be RCC, but atypical finding as a tumor thrombus that filled the renal pelvis and the whole ureter was also observed. Nephroureterectomy was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed histopathologically as RCC.
We report here a very rare case of RCC with a tumor thrombus in the whole ureter.
Large Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma with Tumor Infiltrative Lymphocytes and Autoimmune Hepatitis-Like Features
Case Reports in Gastroenterology
The development of a primary hepatic tumor associated with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has been rarely reported. This report describes a rare case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) that accompanied tumor infiltrative lymphocytes (TIL) and AIH-like features. Moreover, multiple early gastric cancers were recognized in synchrony. An 81-year-old male was admitted due to liver dysfunction. His laboratory data on admission showed an elevation of immunoglobulin G and a positive titer of antinuclear antibody. Biological tests for HBV and HCV were negative. Computed tomography showed a well-enhanced hepatic tumor and gastrointestinal fiberscopy revealed two early gastric cancers with mucosal invasion. Biopsies were obtained from the background liver and the hepatic tumor. Histologically, the tumor revealed adenocarcinoma and the liver showed piecemeal necrosis and interface hepatitis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. The patient underwent hepatectomy and distal gastrectomy. Finally, he was diagnosed to have a mass forming type ICC and early gastric cancers. Moreover, prominent TIL in the ICC was revealed. An analysis of the infiltrating lymphocytes by immunohistochemical staining suggested that there was a difference in the local immune response between the tumor and the background liver. Review of the literature showed that there are only three reports of ICC associated with AIH, if including the current case.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Autoimmune hepatitis; Tumor infiltrative lymphocyte
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