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1.  Leukoaraiosis, a Common Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding, as a Predictor of Traffic Crashes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e57255.
Background
There are no reported studies on the relationship between traffic crashes and brain tissue changes in healthy drivers. The relationship between traffic crashes and leukoaraiosis, a common magnetic resonance imaging finding, was investigated in this study.
Methods
A total of 3,930 automobile drivers (2,037 men and 1,893 women; age, 21–87 years) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging as part of total health check-ups and answered a road traffic questionnaire were examined to determine whether asymptomatic leukoaraiosis was associated with various types of traffic crashes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to elucidate the relationship between leukoaraiosis and various types of traffic crashes.
Results
Subcortical leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 28.52% of all subjects, whereas periventricular leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 9.57% of all subjects. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in all types of traffic crashes were not significant for subjects with periventricular leukoaraiosis; however, they were significant for subjects with multiple and large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in crashes at crossroads were 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.00) for subjects with single subcortical leukoaraiosis, 3.35 (95% CI, 2.36–4.77) for subjects with multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, and 2.45 (95% CI, 2.36–4.98) for subjects with large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Periventricular leukoaraiosis was not significantly associated with crossroad crashes. Involvement in crashes of any type, parking lot crashes, and rear-end collisions showed no significant association with either subcortical or periventricular leukoaraiosis.
Conclusions
Multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, but not periventricular leukoaraiosis, is significantly associated with traffic crashes, in particular, crossroad crashes. This association is independent of sex, age, and driving exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence describing the relationship between brain tissue changes and traffic crashes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057255
PMCID: PMC3577720  PMID: 23437354
2.  The primary therapy chosen for patients with localized prostate cancer between the university hospital and its affiliated hospitals in Nara Uro-oncological research group registration 
BMC Urology  2011;11:6.
Background
We investigated the differences between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the primary therapy actually conducted for prostate cancer patients in Nara, Japan.
Methods
The distribution of primary therapy and clinical characteristics of 2303 prostate cancer patients - diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 at Nara Medical University and its 23 affiliated hospitals - were assessed. Moreover, the preferential primary therapy for the patients at each clinical stage (cT1-T3bN0M0) conceived by the primary doctors was investigated and compared to the actual therapy.
Results
Of all patients, 51% received primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT), 30% underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), and 14% received radiation therapy (RT). The preferential primary therapy for cT1-2N0M0 was RP (92%) while 38% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 40%). For cT3aN0M0, the preferential primary therapy was both RP and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) while 58% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 16%, EBRT: 24%). For cT3bN0M0, the most preferential primary therapy was EBRT (46%) while 67% of the patients actually received PADT (EBRT: 21%). This trend was more notable in the affiliated hospitals than in the University hospital. The hospitals with lower volume of RP per year significantly conducted PADT compared with those with higher volume of RP.
Conclusions
PADT was commonly used to treat localized prostate cancer as well as locally advanced prostate cancer in Japan. There was a definite discrepancy between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the actual therapy provided to the patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-6
PMCID: PMC3095576  PMID: 21524283

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