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1.  Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale in Rural Uganda 
AIDS and behavior  2013;17(1):427-433.
HIV infection remains highly stigmatized throughout sub-Saharan Africa despite the increasing availability of treatment. HIV-related stigma is commonly described to be highly prevalent in East Africa, but none of these studies have employed validated scales for measurement. We used data from 456 people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda to validate the six-item Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. The scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.73) and time stability. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the presence of a single factor. Construct validity was supported by observations that the scale was correlated with related constructs such as depression and mental health-related quality of life. The scale was able to discriminate between groups of persons who were different in terms of treatment status and their experience of HIV-related self-blame. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale may be a useful tool for socio-behavioral HIV research.
PMCID: PMC3505811  PMID: 22869104
HIV; social stigma; Uganda
2.  Sexual Relationship Power and Malnutrition Among HIV-Positive Women in Rural Uganda 
AIDS and behavior  2012;16(6):1542-1548.
Inequality within partner relationships is associated with HIV acquisition and gender violence, but little is known about more pervasive effects on women’s health. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of associations between sexual relationship power and nutritional status among women in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. We assessed sexual relationship power using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS). We performed logistic regression to test for associations between sexual relationship power and poor nutritional status including body mass index, body fat percentage, and mid-upper arm circumference. Women with higher sexual relationship power scores had decreased odds of low body mass index (OR 0.29, p = 0.01), low body fat percentage (OR 0.54, p = 0.04), and low midupper arm circumference (OR 0.22, p = 0.01). These relationships persisted in multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders. Targeted interventions to improve intimate partner relationship equality should be explored to improve health status among women living with HIV in rural Africa.
PMCID: PMC3439197  PMID: 22382629
Gender Equality; Malnutrition HIV/AIDS; Sub-Saharan Africa
3.  Predictors and outcome of surgical repair of obstetric fistula at a regional referral hospital, Mbarara, western Uganda 
BMC Urology  2011;11:23.
Obstetric fistula although virtually eliminated in high income countries, still remains a prevalent and debilitating condition in many parts of the developing world. It occurs in areas where access to care at childbirth is limited, or of poor quality and where few hospitals offer the necessary corrective surgery.
This was a prospective observational study where all women who attended Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in western Uganda with obstetric fistula during the study period were assessed pre-operatively for social demographics, fistula characteristics, classification and outcomes after surgery. Assessment for fistula closure and stress incontinence after surgery was done using a dye test before discharge
Of the 77 women who were recruited in this study, 60 (77.9%) had successful closure of their fistulae. Unsuccessful fistula closure was significantly associated with large fistula size (Odds Ratio 6 95% Confidential interval 1.46-24.63), circumferential fistulae (Odds ratio 9.33 95% Confidential interval 2.23-39.12) and moderate to severe vaginal scarring (Odds ratio 12.24 95% Confidential interval 1.52-98.30). Vaginal scarring was the only factor independently associated with unsuccessful fistula repair (Odds ratio 10 95% confidential interval 1.12-100.57). Residual stress incontinence after successful fistula closure was associated with type IIb fistulae (Odds ratio 5.56 95% Confidential interval 1.34-23.02), circumferential fistulae (Odds ratio 10.5 95% Confidential interval 1.39-79.13) and previous unsuccessful fistula repair (Odds ratio 4.8 95% Confidential interval 1.27-18.11). Independent predictors for residual stress incontinence after successful fistula closure were urethral involvement (Odds Ratio 4.024 95% Confidential interval 2.77-5.83) and previous unsuccessful fistula repair (Odds ratio 38.69 95% Confidential interval 2.13-703.88).
This study demonstrated that large fistula size, circumferential fistulae and marked vaginal scarring are predictors for unsuccessful fistula repair while predictors for residual stress incontinence after successful fistula closure were urethral involvement, circumferential fistulae and previous unsuccessful fistula repair.
PMCID: PMC3252285  PMID: 22151960

Results 1-3 (3)