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author:("Leite, kaia R")
1.  Controlling RECK miR21 Promotes Tumor Cell Invasion and Is Related to Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2015;6(3):292-301.
The search for biomarkers to characterize prostate cancer aggressiveness has been the objective for the majority of researchers involved with the most prevalent tumor in men. MiRNAs are important for the control of many cellular functions and their deregulation is involved with tumor development and progression. To find miRNAs differentially expressed in prostate cancer and their relation to prognostic factors and biochemical recurrence we studied 53 surgical specimens from men who underwent radical prostatectomy, through a microarray analysis using the microarray platform (GeneChip® miRNA Array - Affymetrix) with more than 46,000 probes and 847 mature human miRNAs and transcripts. We defined different as an expression level greater or less than 1.1 with p<0.05. The validation study using qRT-PCR had confirmed miR21 as overexpressed in tumor that have recurred with a risk of 2.5. Transfection of miR-21 using lipid based assay in DU145 cell line, showed decrease in expression of RECK resulting in increase in expression of MMP9. Invasion assay with Matrigel showed increase in tumor cell invasion after miR-21 transfection. We conclude that miR-21 overexpression is related to increased biochemical recurrence after surgical treatment of prostate cancer. And the negative control of RECK results in overexpression of MMP9 promotes increasing tumor cell invasion supporting miR-21 as an oncomiR related to aggressiveness in prostate cancer.
doi:10.7150/jca.11038
PMCID: PMC4317766  PMID: 25663948
Prostate cancer; Micro RNA; Microarray; Biochemical recurrence; Prognosis; miR-21; Cell invasion; RECK; DU145
2.  Comprehensive Study of Gene and microRNA Expression Related to Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113700.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and most patients have localized disease at the time of diagnosis. However, 4% already present with metastatic disease. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a fundamental process in carcinogenesis that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer progression. The main event in epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the repression of E-cadherin by transcription factors, but the process is also regulated by microRNAs. The aim of this study was to analyze gene and microRNA expression involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in localized prostate cancer and metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and correlate with clinicopathological findings. We studied 51 fresh frozen tissue samples from patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated by radical prostatectomy and three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3). The expression of 10 genes and 18 miRNAs were assessed by real-time PCR. The patients were divided into groups according to Gleason score, pathological stage, preoperative PSA, biochemical recurrence, and risk group for correlation with clinicopathological findings. The majority of localized PCa cases showed an epithelial phenotype, with overexpression of E-cadherin and underexpression of the mesenchymal markers. MiRNA-200 family members and miRNAs 203, 205, 183, 373, and 21 were overexpressed, while miRNAs 9, 495, 29b, and 1 were underexpressed. Low-expression levels of miRNAs 200b, 30a, and 1 were significantly associated with pathological stage. Lower expression of miR-200b was also associated with a Gleason score ≥8 and shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, low-expression levels of miR-30a and high-expression levels of Vimentin and Twist1 were observed in the high-risk group. Compared with the primary tumor, the metastatic cell lines showed significantly higher expression levels of miR-183 and Twist1. In summary, miRNAs 200b, 30a, 1, and 183 and the genes Twist1 and Vimentin might play important roles in the progression of prostate cancer and may eventually become important prognostic markers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113700
PMCID: PMC4237496  PMID: 25409297
3.  TNF-α and CD8+ T Cells Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Nitric Oxide Synthase-2 Deficiency in Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis 
Background
Nitric oxide (NO), a key antimicrobial molecule, was previously shown to exert a dual role in paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic fungal infection in Latin America. In the intravenous and peritoneal models of infection, NO production was associated with efficient fungal clearance but also with non-organized granulomatous lesions. Because paracoccidioidomycosis is a pulmonary infection, we aimed to characterize the role of NO in a pulmonary model of infection.
Methodology/Principal Findings
C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) and iNOS−/− mice were i.t. infected with 1×106 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts and studied at several post-infection periods. Unexpectedly, at week 2 of infection, iNOS−/− mice showed decreased pulmonary fungal burdens associated with an M2-like macrophage profile, which expressed high levels of TGF-β impaired ability of ingesting fungal cells. This early decreased fungal loads were concomitant with increased DTH reactions, enhanced TNF-α synthesis and intense migration of activated macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the lungs. By week 10, iNOS−/− mice showed increased fungal burdens circumscribed, however, by compact granulomas containing elevated numbers of activated CD4+ T cells. Importantly, the enhanced immunological reactivity of iNOS−/− mice resulted in decreased mortality rates. In both mouse strains, depletion of TNF-α led to non-organized lesions and excessive influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs, but only the iNOS−/− mice showed increased mortality rates. In addition, depletion of CD8+ cells abolished the increased migration of inflammatory cells and decreased the number of TNF-α and IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the lungs of iNOS−/− mice.
Conclusions/Significance
Our study demonstrated that NO plays a deleterious role in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis due to its suppressive action on TNF-α production, T cell immunity and organization of lesions resulting in precocious mortality of mice. It was also revealed that uncontrolled fungal growth can be overcome by an efficient immune response.
Author Summary
Paracoccidiodomycosis is a human systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America that has a wide spectrum of manifestations ranging from localized to fatal disseminated forms. Both in humans and experimental models, immunoprotection is mediated by T cell immunity whereas immunosuppression is associated with the severe forms of the disease. The literature shows that nitric oxide (NO) produced by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2 or iNOS) is the major fungicidal component of phagocytic cells. The role of NO production was previously investigated in the intra-peritoneal and intravenous murine models of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. The human paracoccidioidomycosis is believed to be acquired by the respiratory route, thus our study aimed to characterize the role of NO production in a pulmonary model of infection. We verified that, paradoxically, absence of NO production by iNOS- deficient mice resulted in less severe disease and increased survival times. This was associated with increased development of cellular immunity and enhanced synthesis of TNF-α which enhances cell migration to the site of infection and contributes to the better organization of lesions. Our work highlighted the deleterious effect of excessive NO production in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis, and demonstrated that uncontrolled fungal growth can be overridden by an efficient immune response.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002325
PMCID: PMC3731220  PMID: 23936574
4.  MicroRNA 100: a context dependent miRNA in prostate cancer 
Clinics  2013;68(6):797-802.
OBJECTIVE:
MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules involved in the development and progression of tumors. We have found that miRNA-100 is underexpressed in metastatic prostate cancer compared to localized disease. Conversely higher levels of miR-100 are related to biochemical recurrence after surgery. This suggests that miR-100 may be a context-dependent miRNA, acting as oncogene or tumor suppressor miRNA. Our aim is to demonstrate the role of miR-100 in the control of predicted target genes in prostate cancer cell lines.
METHODS:
Cell lines DU145 and PC3 were transfected with miR-100, antimiR-100 and after 24 h and 48 h of exposure, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed for mTOR, FGFR3, THAP2, SMARCA5 and BAZ2A.
RESULTS:
There was reduction in mTOR (p = 0.025), THAP2 (p = 0.038), SMARCA5 (p = 0.001) and BAZ2A (p = 0.006) mRNA expression in DU145 cells after exposure to miR-100. In PC3 cells, mTOR expression was decreased by miR-100 (p = 0.01). There was a reduction in the expression levels of proteins encoded by studied genes, ranging from 34% to 69%.
CONCLUSIONS:
We demonstrate that miR-100 is a context-dependent miRNA controlling BAZ2, mTOR, FGFR3, SMARCA5 and THAP2 that might be involved in PC progression. The elucidation of the roles of miRNAs in tumors is important because they can be used as therapeutic targets in the future.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(06)12
PMCID: PMC3674267  PMID: 23778488
Prostate Cancer; Micro RNA; miR-100; Gene Expression; Protein Expression; PCR; Western Blot
5.  The role of micro RNAs let7c, 100 and 218 expression and their target RAS, C-MYC, BUB1, RB, SMARCA5, LAMB3 and Ki-67 in prostate cancer 
Clinics  2013;68(5):652-657.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study is to verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c, 100 and 218 using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray representative of localized and metastasized the lymph nodes and bone prostate cancer.
METHODS:
To verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c (C-MYC, BUB1, RAS) 100 (SMARCA5, RB) and 218 (LAMB3) and cell proliferation (Ki-67) we used immunohistochemistry and computerized image system ImageJ MacBiophotonics in three tissue microarrays representative of localized prostate cancer and lymph node and bone metastases. miRNA expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR using 60 paraffin blocks to construct the tissue microarray representative of localized disease.
RESULTS:
RAS expression was increased in localized prostate cancer and bone metastases compared to the lymph nodes (p = 0.017). RB showed an increase in expression from localized prostate cancer to lymph node and bone metastasis (p = 0.036). LAMB3 was highly expressed in localized and lymph node metastases (p<0.001). Cell proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 showed an increase from localized prostate cancer to metastases (p<0.001). We did not found any relationship between C-MYC (p = 0.253), BUB1 (p = 0.649) and SMARCA5 (p = 0.315) protein expression with prognosis or tumor behavior.
CONCLUSION:
We found that the expression of RAS, RB, LAMB3 and Ki-67 changed in the different stages of prostate cancer. Furthermore, we confirmed the overexpression of the miRNAs let7c, 100 and 218 in localized prostate cancer but failed to show the control of protein expression by the putative controller miRNAs using immunohistochemistry.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(05)12
PMCID: PMC3654318  PMID: 23778407
Prostate Cancer; Prognosis; Tumor Markers; Micro RNA; Immunohistochemistry; RAS; C-MYC; BUB1; SMARCA5; LAMB3; Ki-67, RB
6.  Prima-1 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines by activating p53 
Clinics  2013;68(3):297-303.
OBJECTIVES:
Bladder cancer represents 3% of all carcinomas in the Brazilian population and ranks second in incidence among urological tumors, after prostate cancer. The loss of p53 function is the main genetic alteration related to the development of high-grade muscle-invasive disease. Prima-1 is a small molecule that restores tumor suppressor function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Our aim was to investigate the ability of Prima-1 to induce apoptosis after DNA damage in bladder cancer cell lines.
METHOD:
The therapeutic effect of Prima-1 was studied in two bladder cancer cell lines: T24, which is characterized by a p53 mutation, and RT4, which is the wild-type for the p53 gene. Morphological features of apoptosis induced by p53, including mitochondrial membrane potential changes and the expression of thirteen genes involved in apoptosis, were assessed by microscopic observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS:
Prima-1 was able to reactivate p53 function in the T24 (p53 mt) bladder cancer cell line and promote apoptosis via the induction of Bax and Puma expression, activation of the caspase cascade and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane in a BAK-independent manner.
CONCLUSION:
Prima-1 is able to restore the transcriptional activity of p53. Experimental studies in vivo may be conducted to test this molecule as a new therapeutic agent for urothelial carcinomas of the bladder, which characteristically harbor p53 mutations.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(03)OA03
PMCID: PMC3611750  PMID: 23644847
Bladder cancer; p53; Apoptosis; Prima-1
7.  miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:14.
Background
Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA) mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line.
Materials and methods
To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
Results
The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25) the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12), and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16). From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression) 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-14
PMCID: PMC3431982  PMID: 22642976
Prostate cancer; Prognosis; RECK; Micro RNA; Metaloproteinases
8.  Curcumin, but not Prima-1, decreased tumor cell proliferation in the syngeneic murine orthotopic bladder tumor model 
Clinics  2011;66(12):2121-2124.
OBJECTIVE:
Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for bladder cancer development. Among the mediators of this effect of smoking is nuclear factor-kappa B. Curcumin suppresses cellular transformation by downregulating the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. Prima-1 is a compound that induces apoptosis in human tumor cells, restoring the function of mutant p53. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and prima-1 in an animal model of bladder cancer.
METHODS:
Tumor implantation was achieved in six- to eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice by introducing MB49 bladder cancer cells into the bladder. Intravesical treatment with curcumin and Prima-1 was performed on days 2, 6, 10, and 14. On day 15, the animals were sacrificed. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of cyclin D1, Cox-2, and p21. Cell proliferation was examined using PCNA.
RESULTS:
Animals treated with curcumin exhibited a higher degree of necrosis than animals in other groups. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of cyclin D1 in the curcumin-treated group. All of the cells in mice treated with curcumin were p21 positive, suggesting that the p53 pathway is induced by this compound. Prima-1 did not induce any change in tumor size, necrosis, cell proliferation, or the expression of proteins related to the p53 pathway in this animal model.
CONCLUSION:
Curcumin showed activity in this animal bladder cancer model and probably acted via the regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B and p53. Therefore, curcumin is a good choice for the use in clinical trials to treat superficial bladder cancer as an alternative to bacillus Calmette-Guerin. In contrast, Prima-1 does not seem to have an effect on bladder cancer.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322011001200019
PMCID: PMC3226609  PMID: 22189739
Bladder cancer; Treatment; Curcumin, Prima-1; Apoptosis
9.  Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Leads to Severe Fungal Infection Associated with Enhanced Proinflammatory Immunity and Impaired Expansion of Regulatory T Cells▿  
Infection and Immunity  2009;78(3):1078-1088.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) present in innate immune cells recognize pathogen molecular patterns and influence immunity to control the host-parasite interaction. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of TLR4 in the innate and adaptive immunity to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the most important primary fungal pathogen of Latin America. We compared the responses of C3H/HeJ mice, which are naturally defective in TLR4 signaling, with those of C3H/HePas mice, which express functional receptors, after in vitro and in vivo infection with P. brasiliensis. Unexpectedly, we verified that TLR4-defective macrophages infected in vitro with P. brasiliensis presented decreased fungal loads associated with impaired synthesis of nitric oxide, interleukin-12 (IL-12), and macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). After intratracheal infection with 1 million yeasts, TLR4-defective mice developed reduced fungal burdens and decreased levels of pulmonary nitric oxide, proinflammatory cytokines, and antibodies. TLR4-competent mice produced elevated levels of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), besides cytokines of the Th17 pattern, indicating a proinflammatory role for TLR4 signaling. The more severe infection of TLR4-normal mice resulted in increased influx of activated macrophages and T cells to the lungs and progressive control of fungal burdens but impaired expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). In contrast, TLR4-defective mice were not able to clear their diminished fungal burdens totally, a defect associated with deficient activation of T-cell immunity and enhanced development of Treg cells. These divergent patterns of immunity, however, resulted in equivalent mortality rates, indicating that control of elevated fungal growth mediated by vigorous inflammatory reactions is as deleterious to the hosts as low fungal loads inefficiently controlled by limited inflammatory reactions.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01198-09
PMCID: PMC2825906  PMID: 20008536

Results 1-9 (9)