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1.  Docetaxel with or without estramustine for estramustine refractory castration-resistant prostate cancer: a single institution experience 
BMC Urology  2012;12:3.
Background
The significance of combination of docetaxel (DTX) with estramustine phosphate (EMP) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of DTX with or without EMP and to elucidate the significance of DTX and EMP combination therapy in Japanese EMP-refractory CRPC patients.
Methods
To compare the efficacy and toxicity of DTX and EMP, we divided CRPC patients, who were confirmed to be resistant to EMP, into the following two groups: group D (n = 28), which included patients treated with DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) alone, and group DE (n = 33), which included patients treated with a combination of DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) and EMP (twice daily oral administration at 280 mg).
Results
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) response (> 50% decline in PSA) was observed in six patients (21%) in group D and eight patients (24%) in group DE. The median time to progression (TTP) was 12.0 months and 6.2 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.4 months and 24.3 months in group D and DE, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of PSA response, TTP, and OS. The incidence of adverse events of grade 3/4 was low in both the groups, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups.
Conclusions
Although treatment with DTX at 60 mg/m2 was effective and highly tolerated in EMP-refractory Japanese CRPC patients, the DTX and EMP combination therapy might not exhibit any survival benefit for CRPC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-3
PMCID: PMC3305626  PMID: 22353627
2.  Comparative genomic analysis of 1047 completely sequenced cDNAs from an Arabidopsis-related model halophyte, Thellungiella halophila 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:261.
Background
Thellungiella halophila (also known as T. salsuginea) is a model halophyte with a small size, short life cycle, and small genome. Thellungiella genes exhibit a high degree of sequence identity with Arabidopsis genes (90% at the cDNA level). We previously generated a full-length enriched cDNA library of T. halophila from various tissues and from whole plants treated with salinity, chilling, freezing stress, or ABA. We determined the DNA sequences of 20 000 cDNAs at both the 5'- and 3' ends, and identified 9569 distinct genes.
Results
Here, we completely sequenced 1047 Thellungiella full-length cDNAs representing abiotic-stress-related genes, transcription factor genes, and protein phosphatase 2C genes. The predicted coding sequences, 5'-UTRs, and 3'-UTRs were compared with those of orthologous genes from Arabidopsis for length, sequence similarity, and structure. The 5'-UTR sequences of Thellungiella and Arabidopsis orthologs shared a significant level of similarity, although the motifs were rearranged. While examining the stress-related Thellungiella coding sequences, we found a short splicing variant of T. halophila salt overly sensitive 1 (ThSOS1), designated ThSOS1S. ThSOS1S contains the transmembrane domain of ThSOS1 but lacks the C-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression level of ThSOS1S under normal growth conditions was higher than that of ThSOS1. We also compared the expression levels of Na+-transport-system genes between Thellungiella and Arabidopsis by using full-length cDNAs from each species as probes. Several genes that play essential roles in Na+ excretion, compartmentation, and diffusion (SOS1, SOS2, NHX1, and HKT1) were expressed at higher levels in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis.
Conclusions
The full-length cDNA sequences obtained in this study will be essential for the ongoing annotation of the Thellungiella genome, especially for further improvement of gene prediction. Moreover, they will enable us to find splicing variants such as ThSOS1S (AB562331).
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-261
PMCID: PMC3017837  PMID: 21106055
3.  Role of PP2C-mediated ABA signaling in the moss Physcomitrella patens 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2009;4(9):887-889.
Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is found in a wide range of land plants, from mosses to angiosperms. However, our knowledge concerning the function of ABA is limited to some angiosperm plant species. We have shown that the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana share a conserved abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway mediated through ABI1-related type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis abi1-1, a dominant allele of ABI1 that functions as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, or targeted disruption of Physcomitrella ABI1-related gene (PpABI1A) resulted in altered ABA sensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance of Physcomitrella, as demonstrated by osmostress and freezing stress. Moreover, transgenic Physcomitrella overexpressing abi1-1 showed altered morphogenesis. These trangenic plants had longer stem lengths compared to the wild type, and continuous growth of archegonia (female organ) with few sporophytes under non-stress conditions. Our results suggest that PP2C-mediated ABA signaling is involved in both the abiotic stress responses and developmental regulation of Physcomitrella.
PMCID: PMC2802809  PMID: 19847119
ABA; ABI1; Physcomitrella patens; PP2C; signaling
4.  Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance 
Nature Communications  2013;4:2219.
Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation.
Abscisic acid plays an essential role in the induction of vegetative desiccation tolerance in bryophytes. Here the authors show that elimination of protein phosphatases 2C is sufficient for the moss Physcomitrella patens to survive desiccation without the assistance of abscisic acid.
doi:10.1038/ncomms3219
PMCID: PMC3731658  PMID: 23900426

Results 1-4 (4)