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1.  Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2015;2015:120796.
Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case.
doi:10.1155/2015/120796
PMCID: PMC4706892  PMID: 26819791
2.  Surgical Outcome for Hemodialysis-Related Upper Cervical Lesions 
Asian Spine Journal  2015;9(5):699-704.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
To investigate the surgical outcome for hemodialysis-related upper cervical lesions.
Overview of Literature
Surgical outcome of lower cervical lesions in patients undergoing hemodialysis has been reported. However, surgical outcome for upper cervical lesions in hemodialysis patients is unclear.
Methods
Upper cervical lesions in nine patients undergoing hemodialysis were surgically treated. Mean age at surgery was 61.6 years (range, 52-68 years), and the mean follow-up period was 45.4 months (range, 2-98 months). Patients had undergone hemodialysis for an average of 25.3 years (range, 16-40 years) at surgery. Seven patients with destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) of the upper cervical spine were treated with atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fixation. Two patients with retro-odontoid pseudotumors were treated with C1 posterior arch resection alone. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores for cervical myelopathy, postoperative complications, postoperative radiography, and preoperative and postoperative occipital pain were evaluated.
Results
Mean preoperative and postoperative JOA score was 3.7 and 8.1, respectively. The seven patients with DSA had severe preoperative occipital pain that disappeared postoperatively. Postoperative radiography showed solid bone union in DSA cases and no instability in pseudotumor cases.
Conclusions
Satisfactory surgical outcome was observed for hemodialysis-related upper cervical lesions.
doi:10.4184/asj.2015.9.5.699
PMCID: PMC4591440  PMID: 26435787
Upper cervical spine; Surgical outcome; Hemodialysis; Destructive spondyloarthropathy
3.  Surgical Treatment for Atlanto-Occipital Subluxation due to Destructive Spondyloarthropathy in a Patient Undergoing Long-Term Hemodialysis 
Asian Spine Journal  2015;9(4):621-624.
Destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) has been reported in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Cervical spinal lesions, including those of the upper cervical spine, are reported to be some of the most common. To our knowledge, we report for the first time, a case of atlanto-occipital subluxation requiring surgical treatment due to severe myelopathy and nuchal pain in a patient undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The patient was a 66-year-old woman who had undergone hemodialysis for 40 years. She visited our hospital due to an acute progression of gait disturbance and severe nuchal pain. Computed tomography showed posterior subluxation of the atlanto-occipital joints. DSA was also observed in the lower cervical spine. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis at both the upper and lower cervical levels. We performed Oc-C7 fixation, C1 laminectomy, and C3-C7 laminoplasty. We first recognized that the atlanto-occipital subluxation was caused by the extremely long-term, in this case, 40 years, hemodialysis.
doi:10.4184/asj.2015.9.4.621
PMCID: PMC4522456  PMID: 26240725
Hemodialysis; Destructive spondyloarthropathy; Atlanto-occipital subluxation
4.  Differential Diagnosis of Tumoral Lesions in the Spinal Canal in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis 
Asian Spine Journal  2015;9(2):194-199.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
To clarify the features useful for the differential diagnosis of spinal canal tumoral lesions in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
Overview of Literature
Tumoral lesions in the spinal canal are rarely found in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of tumoral lesions in the spinal canal in hemodialysis patients has been very difficult.
Methods
Spinal canal tumors in 17 patients undergoing hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis were investigated. Histopathological analysis was conducted for all specimens obtained during surgery. The tumoral lesions were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of histopathology: spinal cord tumor, amyloidoma, and other. Patient medical history and diagnostic images of each group were reviewed.
Results
Eight of 17 cases were histopathologically diagnosed as spinal cord tumors and were neurinomas, 6 were amyloidomas, and 3 were classified as other. The rate of spinal cord tumors was 47.1% (8 of 17 cases), which revealed the most frequent lesion type. The rate of amyloidomas and other types was 35.3% (6 of 17 cases) and 17.6% (3 of 17cases), respectively. In the amyloidoma group, the mean duration of hemodialysis (24.3 years) was longer than that of spinal cord tumors and other types (9.2 years and 8.6 years, respectively). All spinal cord tumors were intradural extramedullary, whereas all amyloidomas and other types were extradural.
Conclusions
The rate of each tumoral lesion, the duration of hemodialysis, and the tumoral localization are important features for the differential diagnosis of tumoral lesions in the spinal canal in hemodialysis patients.
doi:10.4184/asj.2015.9.2.194
PMCID: PMC4404532  PMID: 25901229
Hemodialysis; Tumoral lesions; Spinal canal; Differential diagnosis
5.  Pycnodysostosis with Multi-Segmental Spinal Canal Stenosis due to Ossification of the Yellow Ligament 
Asian Spine Journal  2015;9(2):286-289.
Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, small stature, acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, loss of the mandibular angle, separated cranial sutures with open fontanels, and frequent fractures. One identified cause of the disease is reduced activity of the cysteine protease cathepsin K. A 48-year-old woman with a history of frequent fractures presented with a severe gait disturbance. Radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and gene analysis were performed. Physical examination revealed open fontanels, and radiographs showed increased bone density. DNA sequence analysis revealed a deletion mutation of the cathepsin K gene. We diagnosed pycnodysostosis based on these findings. The magnetic resonance and computed tomography images demonstrated multilevel spinal canal stenosis due to ossification of the yellow ligament. We performed a laminectomy, and the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pycnodysostosis with ossification of the yellow ligament.
doi:10.4184/asj.2015.9.2.286
PMCID: PMC4404546  PMID: 25901243
Pycnodysostosis; Ossification of yellow ligament; Cathepsin K
6.  Chronic expanding hematoma with a significantly high fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, mimicking a malignant soft tissue tumor: a case report 
Introduction
Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare persistent hematoma that can sometimes be misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor due to its clinical and radiological features.
Case presentation
A 42-year-old Japanese man with a large mass in his leg, suggestive of malignancy, presented to our hospital. He had been aware of the leg swelling for the last eight years. A magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a large mass with two components. One was a large, well-defined cystic mass (13×9cm) showing high intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images, and the other was a solid mass (3.5×2.5cm, adjacent to the large mass) with high intensity on T1-weighted images. Two-[18F]fluoro-2 deoxy-D glucose positron emission tomography images revealed increased uptake with a maximum standardized uptake value of 15.8 in the solid mass. As these findings were considered suggestive of hematoma associated with a malignant lesion, an open biopsy was performed. A pathological examination demonstrated a hematoma with xanthogranuloma, and no malignant cells were evident. Therefore, we resected the tumor including both components, and the histological diagnosis was chronic expanding hematoma. Clinical diagnosis based on 2-[18F]fluoro-2 deoxy-D glucose uptake is sometimes limited by the fact that 2-[18F]fluoro-2 deoxy-D glucose is taken up by not only malignant tumor cells but also macrophages and tissues with granulation or inflammation.
Conclusions
Significantly increased standardized uptake value in the peripheral rim of the lesion on 2-[18F]fluoro-2 deoxy-D glucose positron emission tomography imaging, mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma, should be recognized as a potential diagnostic pitfall in cases of chronic expanding hematoma.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-349
PMCID: PMC4209771  PMID: 25335527
Chronic expanding hematoma; FDG-PET; Soft tissue sarcoma
7.  Drop Metastasis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Carcinoma to the Cauda Equina 
Asian Spine Journal  2014;8(5):680-683.
The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma cannot be made easily histologically, and most cases of pituitary carcinoma are diagnosed only after the clinical detection of metastasis. Distant metastasis of pituitary tumor occurs in 0.1% to 0.2% of cases and has been reported in the liver, bone and central nervous system, with only one case of metastasis to the cauda equine reported. This study describes a rare case of the drop metastasis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenocarcinoma to the cauda equina, causing cauda equina syndrome.
doi:10.4184/asj.2014.8.5.680
PMCID: PMC4206820  PMID: 25346823
Drop metastasis; Adrenocorticotropic hormone; Pituitary carcinoma; Cauda equine
8.  Treatment of upper urinary tract stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) Sonolith vision 
BMC Urology  2011;11:26.
Background
The aim was to retrospectively assess the results of treatment of upper urinary tract stones with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP, and purchased in 2004.
Methods
The subjects were 226 Japanese patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone as an initial treatment and could be followed up for at least 3 months, selected from 277 candidate patients who underwent this therapy between 2004 and 2006. Treatment effect was evaluated by kidney, ureter, and bladder X-ray or renal ultrasonography at 1 and 3 months after treatment. A stone-free status or status of stone fragmentation to 4 mm or smaller was considered to indicate effective treatment.
Results
At 3 months after treatment, the stone-free rate was 69.4% and the efficacy rate was 77.4% for renal stones, while these rates were 91.5 and 93.3%, respectively for ureteral stones. Assessment of treatment effect classified by the location of stones revealed a stone-free rate of 94.6% and an efficacy rate of 94.6% for lower ureteral stones (4.0 mm or smaller, 1 subject; 4.1-10.0 mm, 31 subjects; 10.1-20.0 mm, 5 subjects: number of treatment sessions, 1 or 2 sessions [mean: 1.03 sessions]). Complications of this therapy included renal subcapsular hematoma and pyelonephritis in 1 case each.
Conclusions
ESWL with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP produced a treatment effect equivalent to those achieved with other models of ESWL equipment. ESWL seems to be an effective first-line treatment also in patients who have lower ureteral stones 10 mm or larger but do not wish to undergo TUL, if measures such as suitable positioning of the patient during treatment are taken.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-26
PMCID: PMC3265410  PMID: 22152040
9.  Inflammatory pseudotumors of the kidney and the lung presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related disease: a case report 
Introduction
It has been reported that immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease can spread to nearly every organ, and often presents as an inflammatory mass or masses at those sites. In the kidney, this disease is often diagnosed after a radical or partial nephrectomy following the discovery of an inflammatory mass which is often suspected to be a malignant tumor. Here, we present a rare case of inflammatory pseudotumors of the kidney and the lung presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related disease, which were diagnosed by computed tomography-guided biopsies.
Case presentation
A 54-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with suspected bilateral renal cancer, multiple lung metastases and autoimmune pancreatitis. His serum immunoglobulin G4 level was high. We used computed tomography-guided biopsies and histopathological examinations of the biopsied specimens to diagnose the tumors as immunoglobulin G4-related bilateral renal and lung inflammatory pseudotumors. Our patient was treated with oral prednisolone, and after one month of treatment, contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated a general improvement, as noted by a reduction in size of the masses.
Conclusion
Renal masses that are formed due to immunoglobulin G4-related disease require comprehensive diagnosis to prevent unnecessary surgical resections from being performed. Further consideration should be paid to immunoglobulin G4-related diseases in the future.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-480
PMCID: PMC3189153  PMID: 21943114
10.  Intravesical administration of pirarubicin against superficial bladder cancer: Relationship between tumor tissue concentration and exposure time in the bladder or therapeutic effect 
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tissue concentrations and exposure times or therapeutic effect of an anthracycline anticancer drug, pirarubicin, in bladder cancer tissue after single intravesical administration against superficial bladder cancer. The concentrations of pirarubicin in tumor tissues and serum were measured at designated collection times after a single intravesical administration of pirarubicin (30 mg) in 22 patients with superficial bladder cancer. A wide range of concentrations of pirarubicin in bladder cancer tissue was observed (2.3–125 μg/g of tissue), although serum pirarubicin concentrations were not detected in any of the patients. Recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-BT) was observed in 2 patients (9%). The concentration of pirarubicin in the tumor tissue tended to be higher as the exposure time increased. There was a weak relationship between the pirarubicin tissue concentration and tumor size. However, no significant relationship between tissue pirarubicin concentrations and the prophylactic effect against intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer after TUR-BT was observed. All patients had no adverse events, such as bladder irritation and local toxicity, caused by the treatment with pirarubicin. These findings suggest that prior to single intravesical administration of pirarubicin to patients with superficial bladder cancer the exposure time and tumor size should be considered.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.315
PMCID: PMC3440819  PMID: 22977595
superficial bladder cancer; intravesical chemotherapy; pirarubicin; tumor tissue concentration; exposure time; prophylactic effect against recurrence
11.  A rare case of metastatic renal carcinoid 
BMC Urology  2010;10:22.
Background
Carcinoid is an endocrine cell tumor with low-grade atypia, which is generally a low-grade malignant cancer with a good prognosis. Metastatic renal carcinoid is even rarer than primary carcinoids.
Case presentation
We present our experience of a patient with metastatic renal carcinoid from the gastrointestinal tract.
Conclusions
The carcinoid tumor of the kidney in our patient, who had a history of liver metastasis from rectal carcinoid, was considered metastatic based on the pathological findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-22
PMCID: PMC3016340  PMID: 21144059
12.  The use of zoledronic acid in Japanese men with stage D2 prostate cancer 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(1):13-16.
Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a new generation bisphosphonate with improved efficacy benefits over pamidronate in preclinical testing. In addition, ZOL is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy. ZOL is also the first bisphosphonate to demonstrate efficacy in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors other than breast cancer, such as prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated ZOL treatment in 17 Japanese men with advanced prostate cancer, treated at the Aichi Medical University Hospital between August 2006 and November 2007. The 17 patients had biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer and were found to harbor bone metastasis upon bone scintigraphy. ZOL was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 mg over 15 min every 4 weeks. ZOL was well tolerated with mild renal dysfunction in 2 patients (11.8%), while 1 patient (5.8%) developed skin rash. No significant side effects were observed. Subjective improvement in bone pain was reported in 14 patients (32.4%). ZOL, therefore, is a safe and effective drug that remains an important component of the urologist’s armamentarium against advanced prostate cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000002
PMCID: PMC3436424  PMID: 22966248
zoledronic acid; advanced prostate cancer; bone metastasis

Results 1-12 (12)