Patients undergoing transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate are at risk of TUR syndrome, generally defined as having cardiovascular and/or neurological manifestations, along with serum sodium concentrations less than or equal to 125 mmol/l. As these symptoms can also occur in patients with serum sodium greater than 125 mmol/l, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum sodium concentrations and neurological manifestations of TUR syndrome.
Data on patients who underwent TUR of the prostate under local anesthesia over an 8-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Based on their cardiovascular and neurological manifestations, patients were divided into two groups: a symptomatic and an asymptomatic group. Logistic regression analysis was used to detect the risk factors for being symptomatic. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff value of estimated change in serum sodium level that could predict the development of clinical manifestation of TUR syndrome.
Of the 229 patients, 60 showed symptoms. Serum sodium level correlated with neurological score (Spearman’s correlation coefficient > 0.5). Logistic regression detected that the risk factors for being symptomatic were serum sodium level variables, operation time longer than or equal 90 min, and presence of continuous drainage from the bladder. ROC curve analysis showed that a change in serum sodium level of 7.4 mmol/l was the optimal cutoff value, with a sensitivity of 0.72, a specificity of 0.87, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87. ROC curve analysis also showed that a 7.0% change in serum sodium level was optimal for this parameter, with a sensitivity of 0.70, a specificity of 0.89, and an AUC of 0.87.
Changes in serum sodium concentration of > 7 mmol/l and of > 7% could predict the development of cardiovascular and neurological manifestations, which were assumed to be symptoms of TUR syndrome.