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1.  A rare case of spontaneous necrosis of primary renal cell carcinoma 
A 42-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of asymptomatic gross hematuria. Computed tomography revealed a 4-cm tumour in the left kidney and radical nephrectomy was performed. Microscopically, the tumour was completely necrotic and consisted of nests of cells with abundant cytoplasm and large nuclei. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated complete infarction of the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Two years after surgery, the patient remained recurrence-free.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.2272
PMCID: PMC4301967  PMID: 25624965
2.  A nonerythropoietic derivative of erythropoietin inhibits tubulointerstitial fibrosis in remnant kidney 
Background
The tissue-protective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been extensively investigated, and EPO administration can raise the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Recently, we reported that carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) protected kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as EPO.
Methods
To investigate the clinical applications of CEPO, we next evaluated the long-term therapeutic effect of CEPO using a tubulointerstitial model rat. We randomized remnant kidney model rats to receive saline, EPO, or CEPO for 8 weeks.
Results
CEPO- and EPO-treated rats had improved serum creatinine levels compared with saline-treated remnant kidney model rats, although the Hb level was significantly increased in EPO-treated rats. Two-photon microscopy revealed that EPO/CEPO significantly ameliorated tubular epithelial cell damage assessed by endocytosis. In addition, CEPO or EPO protected endothelial cells with a sustained blood flow rate. EPO or CEPO suppressed the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells with weak αSMA staining.
Furthermore, PCR analysis demonstrated that TGF-β and type I collagen expression was attenuated in EPO- or CEPO-treated rats, accompanied by a significant decrease in interstitial fibrosis.
Conclusion
We established a long-term therapeutic approach to protect tubulointerstitial injury with CEPO, and thus, the therapeutic value of this approach warrants further attention and preclinical studies.
doi:10.1007/s10157-012-0647-x
PMCID: PMC4108904  PMID: 22678524
Carbamylated erythropoietin; Remnant kidney; Apoptosis; TGF-β
3.  Clinical characteristics and risk factors for septic shock in patients receiving emergency drainage for acute pyelonephritis with upper urinary tract calculi 
BMC Urology  2012;12:4.
Background
Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a common complication of ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis, and it can be lethal if it progresses to septic shock. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients undergoing emergency drainage and assessed risk factors for septic shock.
Methods
A retrospective study was performed of 98 patients (101 events) requiring emergency drainage at our urology department for obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi from January 2003 to January 2011. Clinical characteristics were summarized, and risk factors for septic shock were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
Results
Objective evidence of sepsis was found in 64 (63.4%) events, and 21 events (20.8%) were categorized as septic shock. Ninety-six patients recovered, but 2 patients died of septic shock. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and the presence of paralysis were independent risk factors for septic shock.
Conclusions
APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi is a severe disease that should be treated with caution, particularly when risk factors are present.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-4
PMCID: PMC3353222  PMID: 22413829

Results 1-3 (3)