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author:("Hirao, shua")
1.  The optimal number of initial prostate biopsy cores in daily practice: a prospective study using the Nara Urological Research and Treatment Group nomogram 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:689.
To elucidate the optimal number of prostate biopsy cores using a nomogram allocating 6–12 biopsy cores, the number generally used in daily practice, based on age and prostate volume (PV).
We enrolled 936 patients who received an initial prostate biopsy from April 2006 to January 2009. A number of 6–12 biopsy cores was allocated based on age and PV Nara Urological Research and Treatment Group (NURTG) nomogram. To elucidate the predictive parameters of cancer detection in patients with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) value in the gray zone, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out.
The total cancer detection rate and the cancer detection rate in the PSA gray zone (4.1–10.0 ng/mL) were 48.0 and 37.6 %, respectively. The cancer detection rates in the gray zone stratified by patient age of ≤59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years were 28.4, 35.0, 26.9, 37.9, 45.7, and 54.8 %, respectively. The significant predictive parameters of cancer detection in the gray zone were age, volume biopsy ratio (VBR: PV divided by number of biopsy cores), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examination findings, and transrectal ultrasound findings in univariate analyses. Finally, age, VBR, and PSAD were independent parameters to predict cancer detection in the gray zone. The adverse event profile was acceptable.
Our present study revealed that the cancer detection rate using the NURTG nomogram allocating 6–12 biopsy cores, the number generally used in daily practice, based on age and PV, could provide similar efficacy as previous studies involving more biopsy cores. In older patients the number of biopsy cores could be reduced.
PMCID: PMC4652389  PMID: 26581414
Prostate cancer; Prostate biopsy; Prostate volume; Volume biopsy ratio; Prospective study
2.  Clinical significance of subepithelial growth patterns in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer 
BMC Urology  2011;11:17.
We evaluated the clinical significance and prognostic value of histopathological features of bladder cancer, such as subepithelial growth patterns and tumor growth pattern at the invasion front.
In total, 130 patients newly diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and underwent transurethral resection between 1998 and 2009 were enrolled. Subepithelial growth patterns consisting of endophytic growth pattern (EGP) and von Brunn's nest involvement (VBNI) were investigated using hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, and their frequency of occurrence, prognostic value, and correlation with other clinicopathological features was evaluated.
EGP and VBNI were found in 40 (30.8%) and 5 (3.9%) of the 130 cases, respectively. Of the 26 pT1 tumors, the growth pattern at the invasion front was trabecular in 17 (65.4%) and infiltrative in 9 (34.6%). Although 8 (47.1%) of 17 trabecular tumors coexisted with EGP, no cases with infiltrative tumors had EGP (p = 0.023). VBNI correlated with high tumor grades (p = 0.006) and lymphovascular involvement (p = 0.026). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that tumor diameter less than 3 cm (p = 0.04) and intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (p = 0.004) were independent favorable prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival, whereas tumor stage was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease progression (p = 0.006).
Subepithelial growth patterns were not a significant prognostic factor in this study. Additionally, no tumors with an infiltrative growth pattern coexisted with EGP, suggesting that determining the presence of EGP might be helpful for managing non-muscle invasive bladder cancers.
PMCID: PMC3167754  PMID: 21816111
bladder cancer; endophytic growth pattern; prognostic factor; infiltrative pattern

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