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1.  Accurate Risk Assessment of Patients with Asymptomatic Hematuria for the Presence of Bladder Cancer 
World journal of urology  2012;30(6):847-852.
Purpose
Bladder cancer is frequently diagnosed during a workup for hematuria. However, most patients with microscopic hematuria and many with gross hematuria are not appropriately referred to urologists. We hypothesized that in patients presenting with asymptomatic hematuria, the risk of having bladder cancer can be predicted with high accuracy. Towards this end, we analyzed risk factors in patients with asymptomatic hematuria and developed a nomogram for the prediction of bladder cancer presence.
Methods
Data from 1,182 consecutive subjects without a history of bladder cancer undergoing initial evaluation for asymptomatic hematuria were collected at three centers. Clinical risk factors including age, gender, smoking status, and degree of hematuria were recorded. All subjects underwent standard workup including voided cytology, upper tract imaging, and cystourethroscopy. Factors associated with the presence of bladder cancer were evaluated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. The multivariable analysis was used to construct a nomogram. Internal validation was performed using 200 bootstrap samples.
Results
Of the 1,182 subjects who presented with asymptomatic hematuria, 245 (20.7%) had bladder cancer. Increasing age (OR=1.03, p<0.0001), smoking history (OR=3.72, p<0.0001), gross hematuria (OR=1.71, p=0.002), and positive cytology (OR=14.71, p<0.0001) were independent predictors of bladder cancer presence. The multivariable model achieved 83.1% accuracy for predicting the presence of bladder cancer.
Conclusions
Bladder cancer presence can be predicted with high accuracy in patients who present with asymptomatic hematuria. We developed a nomogram to help optimize referral patterns (i.e., timing and prioritization) of patients with asymptomatic hematuria.
doi:10.1007/s00345-012-0979-x
PMCID: PMC4004026  PMID: 23124847
urinary bladder neoplasms; hematuria; nomograms; early detection of cancer; carcinoma
2.  Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 mRNA expression in renal cell carcinoma 
Background
Galectins are known to regulate cell differentiation and growth as well as cell adhesion and apoptosis. Galectins have been discussed as possible prognosticators for survival in renal cell cancer (RCC) and other urological tumors. They might also play an emerging role as possible new marker-proteins for RCC. In this study, we analyzed the expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNA in order to further investigate their clinical significance in RCC.
Methods
Tissue samples were obtained from 106 patients undergoing surgery for RCC. The expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNA in normal kidney and corresponding cancer tissue was analyzed using quantitative real time PCR. Differences in expression levels of paired tissue samples were assessed using paired two-sample tests. Associations of relative mRNA expression levels in tumor tissues with clinical findings were analyzed using univariate logistic regression.
Results
The expression of galectin-1 (p < 0.001) and -3 (p < 0.001) mRNA were significantly higher in RCC when compared to the adjacent normal kidney tissue. For clear cell RCC, an association of male gender with higher galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNA expression (p = 0.054, p = 0.034) was detected. For all RCCs, galectin-1 mRNA expression failed to show a significant association with advanced disease as well as a higher rate of lymph node metastases (p = 0.058, p = 0.059).
Conclusion
The mRNA expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 is significantly increased in RCC cancer tissue. The higher mRNA expression in tumor tissue of male patients raises the question of a functional connection between galectins and the higher prevalence of RCC in men. Associations with advanced disease might lead to new ways of identifying patients at higher risk of recurrent disease and might even facilitate early metastasectomy with curative intent.
doi:10.1186/1472-6890-14-15
PMCID: PMC4026056  PMID: 24708743
Galectin; Renal cell carcinoma; Biomarker; Prognosis
3.  GATA5 CpG island hypermethylation is an independent predictor for poor clinical outcome in renal cell carcinoma 
Oncology Reports  2014;31(4):1523-1530.
Transcriptional inactivation and CpG island (CGI) methylation of GATA transcription factor family members GATA3 and GATA5 have been reported for a few types of human cancer. Whether high-density CGI methylation of GATA3 or GATA5 is associated with the clinical course of patients with renal cell cancer (RCC) has not been clarified. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR assays were carried out to analyze 25 tumor cell lines including 6 RCC lines and 119 RCC and 87 adjacent normal tissues for the presence of densely methylated sequences. Methylation values were statistically compared with clinicopathological and recurrence-free survival (RFS) data for patients. Comparison of GATA3 and GATA5 methylation in different tumor cell lines revealed a marker-specific methylation characteristic with high and frequent signals for both methylation marks in RCC lines. GATA3 and GATA5 CGI relative methylation levels were found to be strongly associated with the state of metastasis (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively) and advanced disease (P=0.024 and P<0.001, respectively). Moreover, an independent decrease in RFS in Cox proportional hazard analysis was found for tumors exhibiting high GATA5 methylation (P<0.001, hazard ratio, 19.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.58–81.6). Epigenetic alterations in GATA family members may be associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes in RCC, and in the case of GATA5, may serve as a new independent molecular marker for aggressiveness and disease progression.
doi:10.3892/or.2014.3030
PMCID: PMC3975988  PMID: 24549248
GATA3; GATA5; renal cell cancer; DNA hypermethylation; survival; prognosis
4.  Prospective evaluation of fluorescence-guided cystoscopy to detect bladder cancer in a high-risk population: results from the UroScreen-Study 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:24.
Objective
To prospectively evaluate the role of fluorescence-guided cystoscopy in a high-risk bladder cancer population undergoing screening based on a multi-marker panel of urine-tests (UroScreen-study).
Patients and methods
UroScreen was conducted as a validation study for tumor markers within the frame of a health surveillance program of workers with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Voluntary annual screens were done in 1,609 men. Cytology, quantitative NMP22® assay, and UroVysion (FISH) were applied to 7091 urine samples. Subjects with at least one positive urine-based tumor marker and/or persisting microscopic hematuria were offered fluorescence-guided (PDD) instead of white light cystoscopy. In case of suspicious findings histopathological evaluation by transurethral biopsy was performed. Data were statistically summarized and compared to tumors found by the standard algorithm of the screening study.
Results
Twenty-two subjects with a mean age of 58 years (39–72) underwent PDD cystoscopy. Of those 3 had positive NMP22 tests, 14 positive FISH tests and 9 suspicious cytologies. Two had persisting microscopic hematuria only. PDD cystoscopy revealed enhanced unifocal fluorescence in 14. All had subsequent transurethral biopsy or resection. In total, 1 urothelial carcinoma (pTaG1, low grade) was diagnosed. In the other participants urothelial cancer of the bladder was ruled out. Chronic cystitis was revealed in 8 of 14 biopsies. No higher detection rate was found using PDD than with the standard algorithm of the UroScreen study in which 17 tumors were detected by white light cystoscopy.
Conclusion
The use of PDD does not lead to a higher cancer detection rate in a high-risk screening population. Larger sample sizes may be needed to ultimately asses the value of PDD for bladder cancer screening.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-24
PMCID: PMC3905106  PMID: 24478941
Urothelial cancer of the bladder; Urine based tumor marker; Bladder cancer screening; NMP22; UroVysion; UroScreen; Cytology; Photodynamic diagnostics; Cystoscopy
5.  Immunocytology Is Strong Predictor of Bladder Cancer Presence in Patients With Painless Hematuria: A Multicentre Study 
European urology  2011;61(1):185-192.
Background
Although the performance of immunocytology has been established in the surveillance of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), its value in the initial detection of UCB in patients with painless hematuria remains unclear.
Objective
To determine whether immunocytology improves our ability to predict the likelihood of UCB in patients with painless hematuria. Further, to test the clinical benefit of immunocytology in this setting using decision curve analysis.
Design, setting, and participants
The subjects were 1182 consecutive patients without a history of UCB presenting with painless hematuria and were enrolled at three centres.
Intervention
All patients underwent upper-tract imaging, cystourethroscopy, voided urine cytology, and immunocytology analysis. Bladder tumors were biopsied and histologically confirmed as UCB.
Measurements
Multivariable regression models were developed. Area under the curve was measured and compared using the DeLong test. A nomogram was constructed from the full multivariable model. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical benefit associated with use of the multivariable models including immunocytology.
Results and limitations
Immunocytology had the largest contribution to a multivariable model for the prediction of UCB (odds ratio: 18.3; p < 0.0001), which achieved a 90.8% predictive accuracy. Decision curve analysis revealed that models incorporating immunocytology achieved the highest net benefit at all threshold probabilities.
Conclusions
Immunocytology is a strong predictor of the presence of UCB in patients who present with painless hematuria. Incorporation of immunocytology into predictive models improves diagnostic accuracy by a statistically and clinically significant margin. The use of immunocytology in the diagnostic workup of patients with hematuria appears promising and should be further evaluated.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.08.073
PMCID: PMC3628750  PMID: 21924544
Cystoscopy; Decision curve analysis; Early detection of cancer; Hematuria; Immunocytology; Nomograms; Urinary bladder neoplasms
6.  Severe paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
BMC Urology  2012;12:7.
Background
Renal cell carcinoma can cause various paraneoplastic syndromes including metabolic and hematologic disturbances. Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia has been reported in a variety of hematologic and solid tumors. We present the first case in the literature of severe paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.
Case presentation
A 46 year-old patient patient with a history of significant weight loss, reduced general state of health and coughing underwent radical nephrectomy for metastasized renal cell carcinoma. Three weeks after surgery, the patient presented with excessive peripheral hypereosinophilia leading to profound neurological symptoms due to cerebral microinfarction. Systemic treatment with prednisolone, hydroxyurea, vincristine, cytarabine, temsirolimus and sunitinib led to reduction of peripheral eosinophils but could not prevent rapid disease progression of the patient. At time of severe leukocytosis, a considerable increase of cytokines associated with hypereosinophilia was measurable.
Conclusions
Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in patients with renal cell carcinoma might indicate poor prognosis and rapid disease progression. Myelosuppressive therapy is required in symptomatic patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-7
PMCID: PMC3348004  PMID: 22436420
Paraneoplastic; Hypereosinophilia; Leukocytosis; Renal cell carcinoma; Leukemoid reaction; Encephalopathy
7.  Point-of-Care Tests for Bladder Cancer: The Influencing Role of Hematuria 
Advances in Urology  2011;2011:937561.
Introduction. Several point-of-care tests (POCT) are available for the diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). We evaluate the impact of HU (hematuria) on performance of POCTs. Materials and Methods. Urine from 10 donors was diluted with blood from 0.5 to 0.00625%. BladderCheckR, BTAstatR, BCMR, and BTAR tests were applied. Tests were additionally conducted in 54 patients with HU. HU was stratified according to the amount of erythrocytes (RBC)/μL using two systems: (1) no HU; mild microscopic HU; severe microscopic HU; gross HU; (2) I <25 RBCs; <250 II; ≥250 III. Results were compared to HU status and histopathology. Results. Gross HU became evident between 2090 RBCs/μL and 1065/μL. Addition of blood led to default tests in all 4: BladderCheckR 0.25%; BCM 0.025%, BioNexia 0.00625%, and BTAstat <0.00625%. Rates of false positives for BladderCheck, BTAstat, BCM, and BioNexia were 5.9, 11.8, 0, and 1.8% without HU and 0, 66.7, 44.4, and 66.7% with HU. BTAstat, BCM, and BioNexia were independently influenced by HU (P < 0.0002). Conclusions. NMP22-BladderCheck was most resistant to blood. The diagnostic yield of all others was significantly influenced by HU. A well-defined HU grading helps to define limits of HU for a reliable interpretation of BC-POCTs.
doi:10.1155/2011/937561
PMCID: PMC3227231  PMID: 22162681
8.  A self-reported long-term follow-up of patients operated with either shortening techniques or a TachoSil grafting procedure 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2011;13(2):326-331.
The aim of this article is to analyse the long-term results of different surgical techniques for correction of penile deviations in Peyronie's disease. Patients who underwent surgery for a penile deviation in Peyronie's disease between 1997 and 2007 were included into this study. Cases were retrospectively analysed by chart review. The current situation was evaluated by a 16-item standardized questionnaire addressing penile straightness, sensation, length, sexual function and satisfaction. Ninety patients were contacted with a return rate of 75 (83%) evaluable questionnaires. Thirty-two patients were operated by shortening techniques (STs) with either Schroeder–Essed (n=16) or Nesbit (n=16). Forty-three were operated by a plaque in-/excision and defect covering by TachoSil method (TM). Both groups were similar regarding age (ST 56 years, TM 57 years), comorbidities, mean preoperative erection hardness score (EHS; 3.1 ST, 3.4 TM) and time of follow-up (total mean, 63 months). Preoperatively ST patients had significantly less plaques (P<0.05) and a lower deviation angle in comparison to TM patients (ST 56° versus TM 74° P< 0.001). Still TM patients reported slightly better straightening results, but a significantly lower mean EHS (ST 3.3 versus TM 2.6; P<0.001) during the follow-up. Satisfaction rates were similar in both groups. In conclusion, both techniques revealed to be safe and sustainable successful in penile straightening with better functional outcome of patients operated by STs.
doi:10.1038/aja.2010.157
PMCID: PMC3739197  PMID: 21240293
Nesbit, penile deviation; penile reconstruction; Peyronie's disease; Schroeder–Essed; TachoSil grafting
9.  HYAL-1 Hyaluronidase: A Potential Prognostic Indicator for Progression to Muscle Invasion and Recurrence in Bladder Cancer 
European urology  2009;57(1):86-94.
Background
For bladder cancer (BCa) patients undergoing bladder-sparing treatments, molecular markers may aid in accurately predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan that promotes tumor metastasis. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL-1)–type hyaluronidase (HAase) promotes tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis. Urinary HA and HAase levels are diagnostic markers for BCa.
Objective
We evaluated whether HA and HYAL-1 can predict progression to muscle invasion and recurrence among patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa.
Design, setting, and participants
Based on tissue availability, tissue microarrays were prepared from a cohort of 178 BCa specimens (144 non–muscle invasive, 34 muscle invasive). Follow-up information was available on 111 patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa (mean follow-up: 69.5 mo); 58 patients recurred and 25 progressed to muscle invasion (mean time to progress: 22.3 mo).
Measurements
HA and HYAL-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and graded for intensity and area of staining. Association of HA and HYAL-1 staining with BCa recurrence and muscle invasion was evaluated by univariate and multivariate models.
Results and limitations
HA and HYAL-1 expression correlated with tumor grade, stage, and multifocality (p < 0.05). In non–muscle-invasive BCa specimens, HYAL-1 staining was higher (234.3 ± 52.2; 200.6 ± 61.4) if patients experienced progression to muscle invasion or recurrence when compared with no progression or recurrence (164.1 ± 48.2; 172.1 ± 57; p < 0.001). HA staining correlated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), multifocality (p = 0.023), and HYAL-1 staining (p < 0.001) correlated with muscle invasion, whereas only HYAL-1 correlated with recurrence (p = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, significantly associated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001; 76.8% accuracy) and recurrence (p = 0.01; 67.8% accuracy).
Conclusions
HYAL-1 is a potential prognostic marker for predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2009.03.057
PMCID: PMC2828527  PMID: 19345473
Bladder cancer; Hyaluronic acid; Hyaluronidase; HYAL-1; non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; Prognostic markers; Tissue microarray

Results 1-9 (9)