Cytokines are key mediators of inflammation that may play important roles in prostate cancer initiation and progression. Cytokines found in cancerous prostates may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cancer initiation and progression, and facilitate the exploration of new markers of prostatic neoplasia and inflammation. We describe the cytokine profile of prostatic fluids obtained from cancerous prostate glands and correlate it to both cancer status and inflammation grade.
Prostatic fluid was collected from fresh radical prostatectomy specimens and analyzed by human cytokine antibody microarray. Cases were selected from patients with either minimal or extensive cancer volume on final pathology. Among the cytokines with the greatest difference between the tumor volume groups, eight had their levels quantitated by ELISA and correlated with cancer status and grade of inflammation by neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes.
Among 174 cytokines analyzed, HGF was the most increased (6.57-fold), and HGF and IL18Bpa were significantly elevated in patients with extensive prostate cancer. IL17, GITR, ICAM-1, and IL-18Bpa were elevated in specimens with neutrophilic inflammation into gland lumina, and IL18Bpa, IL17, GITR, ICAM-1 were elevated in specimens with lymphocytic inflammation in prostatic stroma.
Prostatic fluid cytokines were identified that may be useful in early detection and prognostication efforts for prostate cancer, particularly if they can be found not only in prostatic fluids obtained ex vivo, but in expressed prostatic secretions or urine samples from patients with their prostates still in situ.