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1.  Synergistic Effect of Geranylgeranyltransferase Inhibitor, GGTI, and Docetaxel on the Growth of Prostate Cancer Cells 
Prostate Cancer  2011;2012:989214.
Most advanced prostate cancers progress to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after a few years of androgen deprivation therapy and the prognosis of patients with CRPC is poor. Although docetaxel and cabazitaxel can prolong the survival of patients with CRPC, inevitable progression appears following those treatments. It is urgently required to identify better or alternative therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to confirm the anti-cancer activity of zoledronic acid (Zol) and determine whether inhibition of geranylgeranylation in the mevalonate pathway could be a molecular target of prostate cancer treatment. We examined the growth inhibitory effect of Zol in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC3, DU145) and investigated a role of geranylgeranylation in the anticancer activity of Zol. We, then, evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor (GGTI), and analyzed the synergy of GGTI and docetaxel by combination index and isobolographic analysis. Zol inhibited the growth of all prostate cancer cell lines tested in a dose-dependent manner through inhibition of geranylgeranylation. GGTI also inhibited the prostate cancer cell growth and the growth inhibitory effect was augmented by a combination with docetaxel. Synergism between GGTI and docetaxel was observed across a broad range of concentrations. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that GGTI can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells and has synergistic effect with docetaxel, suggesting its potential role in prostate cancer treatment.
doi:10.1155/2012/989214
PMCID: PMC3195320  PMID: 22111007
2.  Duration of androgen deprivation therapy with maximum androgen blockade for localized prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2011;11:7.
Background
Primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a treatment option not only for advanced but also for localized prostate cancer. However, the appropriate duration for primary ADT for localized prostate cancer has not been defined and few studies have addressed this issue. In this study, we aimed to determine the appropriate duration of ADT for localized prostate cancer.
Methods
Sixty-eight consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent a prostatectomy following neoadjuvant ADT were retrospectively reviewed. Factors associated with pT0, which is regarded as serious cancer cell damage or elimination, were investigated.
Results
Of the 68 males, 24 (35.3%) were classified as pT0. The median duration of neoadjuvant ADT in the pT0 and non-pT0 groups was 9 months and 7.5 months, respectively (p = 0.022). The duration of neoadjuvant ADT from when PSA reached < 0.2 ng/ml to surgery was longer in the pT0 group than that in the non-pT0 group (median 5 months against 3 months, p = 0.011). pT0 was achieved in 5 of 6 patients (83.3%) who received ADT for ≥10 months after PSA reached < 0.2 ng/ml. No other clinical characteristics predicted conversion to pT0.
Conclusions
Continuous ADT for ≥10 months after PSA reached < 0.2 ng/ml induced serious prostate cancer cell damage in most patients (> 80%) and may be sufficient to treat localized prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-7
PMCID: PMC3116482  PMID: 21569574

Results 1-2 (2)