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1.  MicroRNA 100: a context dependent miRNA in prostate cancer 
Clinics  2013;68(6):797-802.
OBJECTIVE:
MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules involved in the development and progression of tumors. We have found that miRNA-100 is underexpressed in metastatic prostate cancer compared to localized disease. Conversely higher levels of miR-100 are related to biochemical recurrence after surgery. This suggests that miR-100 may be a context-dependent miRNA, acting as oncogene or tumor suppressor miRNA. Our aim is to demonstrate the role of miR-100 in the control of predicted target genes in prostate cancer cell lines.
METHODS:
Cell lines DU145 and PC3 were transfected with miR-100, antimiR-100 and after 24 h and 48 h of exposure, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed for mTOR, FGFR3, THAP2, SMARCA5 and BAZ2A.
RESULTS:
There was reduction in mTOR (p = 0.025), THAP2 (p = 0.038), SMARCA5 (p = 0.001) and BAZ2A (p = 0.006) mRNA expression in DU145 cells after exposure to miR-100. In PC3 cells, mTOR expression was decreased by miR-100 (p = 0.01). There was a reduction in the expression levels of proteins encoded by studied genes, ranging from 34% to 69%.
CONCLUSIONS:
We demonstrate that miR-100 is a context-dependent miRNA controlling BAZ2, mTOR, FGFR3, SMARCA5 and THAP2 that might be involved in PC progression. The elucidation of the roles of miRNAs in tumors is important because they can be used as therapeutic targets in the future.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(06)12
PMCID: PMC3674267  PMID: 23778488
Prostate Cancer; Micro RNA; miR-100; Gene Expression; Protein Expression; PCR; Western Blot
2.  The role of micro RNAs let7c, 100 and 218 expression and their target RAS, C-MYC, BUB1, RB, SMARCA5, LAMB3 and Ki-67 in prostate cancer 
Clinics  2013;68(5):652-657.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study is to verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c, 100 and 218 using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray representative of localized and metastasized the lymph nodes and bone prostate cancer.
METHODS:
To verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c (C-MYC, BUB1, RAS) 100 (SMARCA5, RB) and 218 (LAMB3) and cell proliferation (Ki-67) we used immunohistochemistry and computerized image system ImageJ MacBiophotonics in three tissue microarrays representative of localized prostate cancer and lymph node and bone metastases. miRNA expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR using 60 paraffin blocks to construct the tissue microarray representative of localized disease.
RESULTS:
RAS expression was increased in localized prostate cancer and bone metastases compared to the lymph nodes (p = 0.017). RB showed an increase in expression from localized prostate cancer to lymph node and bone metastasis (p = 0.036). LAMB3 was highly expressed in localized and lymph node metastases (p<0.001). Cell proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 showed an increase from localized prostate cancer to metastases (p<0.001). We did not found any relationship between C-MYC (p = 0.253), BUB1 (p = 0.649) and SMARCA5 (p = 0.315) protein expression with prognosis or tumor behavior.
CONCLUSION:
We found that the expression of RAS, RB, LAMB3 and Ki-67 changed in the different stages of prostate cancer. Furthermore, we confirmed the overexpression of the miRNAs let7c, 100 and 218 in localized prostate cancer but failed to show the control of protein expression by the putative controller miRNAs using immunohistochemistry.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(05)12
PMCID: PMC3654318  PMID: 23778407
Prostate Cancer; Prognosis; Tumor Markers; Micro RNA; Immunohistochemistry; RAS; C-MYC; BUB1; SMARCA5; LAMB3; Ki-67, RB
3.  Prima-1 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines by activating p53 
Clinics  2013;68(3):297-303.
OBJECTIVES:
Bladder cancer represents 3% of all carcinomas in the Brazilian population and ranks second in incidence among urological tumors, after prostate cancer. The loss of p53 function is the main genetic alteration related to the development of high-grade muscle-invasive disease. Prima-1 is a small molecule that restores tumor suppressor function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Our aim was to investigate the ability of Prima-1 to induce apoptosis after DNA damage in bladder cancer cell lines.
METHOD:
The therapeutic effect of Prima-1 was studied in two bladder cancer cell lines: T24, which is characterized by a p53 mutation, and RT4, which is the wild-type for the p53 gene. Morphological features of apoptosis induced by p53, including mitochondrial membrane potential changes and the expression of thirteen genes involved in apoptosis, were assessed by microscopic observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS:
Prima-1 was able to reactivate p53 function in the T24 (p53 mt) bladder cancer cell line and promote apoptosis via the induction of Bax and Puma expression, activation of the caspase cascade and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane in a BAK-independent manner.
CONCLUSION:
Prima-1 is able to restore the transcriptional activity of p53. Experimental studies in vivo may be conducted to test this molecule as a new therapeutic agent for urothelial carcinomas of the bladder, which characteristically harbor p53 mutations.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(03)OA03
PMCID: PMC3611750  PMID: 23644847
Bladder cancer; p53; Apoptosis; Prima-1
4.  miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:14.
Background
Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA) mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line.
Materials and methods
To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
Results
The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25) the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12), and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16). From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression) 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-14
PMCID: PMC3431982  PMID: 22642976
Prostate cancer; Prognosis; RECK; Micro RNA; Metaloproteinases

Results 1-4 (4)