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1.  Staging lymphadenectomy in patients with localized high risk prostate cancer: comparison of the laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) technique with conventional multiport laparoscopy 
BMC Urology  2014;14(1):92.
Background
In patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer awaiting radiation therapy, pelvic lymphadenectomy (PL) is a reliable minimally invasive staging procedure. We compared outcomes after laparoendoscopic single site PL (LESSPL) with those after conventional multiport laparoscopic PL (MLPL).
Methods
A retrospective case-control study was carried out at the authors’ center. For LESSPL the reusable X-Cone single port was combined with straight and prebent laparoscopic instruments and an additional 3 mm needlescopic grasper. MLPL was performed via four trocars of different sizes using standard laparoscopic instruments.
Results
Patients who underwent either LESSPL (n = 20) or MLPL (n = 97) between January 2008 and July 2013, were included in the study. Demographic data were comparable between groups. Patients in the LESSPL group tended to be older and had a significantly higher ASA-score. The mean operating time was 172.4 ± 34.1 min for LESSPL and 116.6 ± 40.1 min for MLPL (P < .001). During LESSPL, no conversion to MLPL was necessary. An average of 12 lymph nodes per patient was retrieved, with no significant difference between study groups. Postoperative pain scores were similar between groups. The hospital stay was 2.3 ± 0.7 days after LESSPL and 3.1 ± 1.2 days after MLPL (P = .01). Two days postoperatively, significantly more patients after LESSPL than after MLPL recovered their normal physical activity (P < .001). Six months postoperatively, no complications were registered in the LESSPL group and cosmetic results were excellent.
Conclusions
In the present study, shorter hospitalization and quicker postoperative recovery were major benefits of LESSPL over MLPL. In patients with localized prostate cancer, staging LESS pelvic lymphadenectomy may be a safe alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-14-92
PMCID: PMC4247718  PMID: 25412566
Laparoscopy; LESS; Single port; Prostate cancer staging
2.  Risk prediction models for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy using prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2014;16(6):897-901.
Many computer models for predicting the risk of prostate cancer have been developed including for prediction of biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, models for individual BCR free probability at individual time-points after a BCR free period are rare. Follow-up data from 1656 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) were used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict BCR and to compare it with a logistic regression (LR) model using clinical and pathologic parameters, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), margin status (R0/1), pathological stage (pT), and Gleason Score (GS). For individual BCR prediction at any given time after operation, additional ANN, and LR models were calculated every 6 months for up to 7.5 years of follow-up. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the ANN (0.754) and LR models (0.755) calculated immediately following LRP, were larger than that for GS (AUC: 0.715; P = 0.0015 and 0.001), pT or PSA (AUC: 0.619; P always <0.0001) alone. The GS predicted the BCR better than PSA (P = 0.0001), but there was no difference between the ANN and LR models (P = 0.39). Our ANN and LR models predicted individual BCR risk from radical prostatectomy for up to 10 years postoperative. ANN and LR models equally and significantly improved the prediction of BCR compared with PSA and GS alone. When the GS and ANN output values are combined, a more accurate BCR prediction is possible, especially in high-risk patients with GS ≥7.
doi:10.4103/1008-682X.129940
PMCID: PMC4236336  PMID: 25130472
artificial neural network; prostate cancer; recurrence
3.  Comparison of surgical technique (Open vs. Laparoscopic) on pathological and long term functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy 
BMC Urology  2014;14:18.
Background
Few studies to date have directly compared outcomes of retropubic (RRP) and laparoscopic (LRP) radical prostatectomy. We investigated a single institution experience with RRP and LRP with respect to functional and pathological outcomes.
Methods
168 patients who underwent RRP were compared to 171 patients who underwent LRP at our institution. Pathological and functional outcomes including postoperative urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction (ED) of the two cohorts were examined.
Results
Patients had bilateral, unilateral and no nerve sparing technique performed in 83.3%, 1.8% and 14.9% of cases for RRP and 23.4%, 22.8% and 53.8% of cases for LRP, respectively (p < 0.001). Overall positive surgical margin rates were 22.2% among patients who underwent RRP compared to 26.5% of patients who underwent LRP (p = 0.435). Based upon pads/day, urinary continence postoperatively was achieved in 83.2% and 82.8% for RRP and LRP, respectively (p = 0.872). Analysis on postoperative ED was limited due to lack of information on the preoperative erectile status. However, postoperatively there were no differences with respect to ED between the two cohorts (p = 0.151). Based on ICIQ-scores, surgeons with more experience had lower rates of postoperative incontinence irrespective of surgical technique (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001 for continuous and stratified data, respectively).
Conclusions
RRP and LRP represent effective surgical approaches for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Pathological outcomes are excellent for both surgical techniques. Functional outcomes including postoperative urinary incontinence and ED are comparable between the cohorts. Surgeon experience is more relevant than surgical technique applied.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-14-18
PMCID: PMC3922887  PMID: 24506815
Prostate cancer; Erectile dysfunction; Incontinence; Radical prostatectomy; Laparoscopic prostatectomy
4.  Laparoscopic and open postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with advanced testicular cancer – a single center analysis 
BMC Urology  2012;12:15.
Background
The open approach represents the gold standard for postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (O-PCLND) in patients with residual testicular cancer. We analyzed laparoscopic postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-PCLND) and O-PCLND at our institution.
Methods
Patients underwent either L-PCLND (n = 43) or O-PCLND (n = 24). Categorical and continuous variables were compared using the Fisher exact test and Mann–Whitney U test respectively. Overall survival was evaluated with the log-rank test.
Results
Primary histology was embryonal cell carcinomas (18 patients), pure seminoma (2 cases) and mixed NSGCTs (47 patients). According to the IGCCCG patients were categorized into “good”, “intermediate” and “poor prognosis” disease in 55.2%, 14.9% and 20.8%, respectively. Median operative time for L-PCLND was 212 min and 232 min for O-PCLND (p = 0.256). Median postoperative duration of drainage and hospital stay was shorter after L-PCLND (0.0 vs. 3.5 days; p < 0.001 and 6.0 vs. 11.5 days; p = 0.002). Intraoperative complications occurred in 21.7% (L-PCLND) and 38.0% (O-PCLND) of cases with 19.5% and 28.5% of Clavien Grade III complications for L-PCLND and O-PCLND, respectively (p = 0.224). Significant blood loss (>500 ml) was almost equally distributed (8.6% vs. 14.2%: p = 0.076). No significant differences were observed for injuries of major vessels and postoperative complications (p = 0.758; p = 0.370). Tumor recurrence occurred in 8.6% following L-PCLND and in 14.2% following O-PCLND with a mean disease-free survival of 76.6 and 89.2 months, respectively. Overall survival was 83.3 and 95.0 months for L-PCNLD and O-PCLND, respectively (p = 0.447).
Conclusions
L-PCLND represents a safe surgical option for well selected patients at an experienced center.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-15
PMCID: PMC3431976  PMID: 22651395
Advanced testicular cancer; Postchemotherapy; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Laparoscopy; Metastasis
5.  Identification of Metastamirs as Metastasis-associated MicroRNAs in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinomas 
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in cancerogenesis and cancer progression, but their specific role in the metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) is still limited. Based on microRNA microarray analyses from normal and cancerous samples of ccRCC specimens and from bone metastases of ccRCC patients, we identified a set of 57 differentially expressed microRNAs between these three sample groups of ccRCC. A selected panel of 33 miRNAs was subsequently validated by RT-qPCR on total 57 samples. Then, 30 of the 33 examined miRNAs were confirmed to be deregulated. A stepwise down-regulation of miRNA expression from normal, over primary tumor to metastatic tissue samples, was found to be typical. A total of 23 miRNAs (miR-10b/-19a/-19b/-20a/-29a/-29b/-29c/-100/-101/-126/-127/-130/-141/-143/-145/-148a/-192/-194/-200c/-210/-215/-370/-514) were down-regulated in metastatic tissue samples compared with normal tissue. This down-regulated expression in metastatic tissue in comparison with primary tumor tissue was also present in 21 miRNAs. In cell culture experiments with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, epigenetic modifications were shown as one reason of this down-regulation. The altered miRNA profiles, comprising newly identified metastasis-associated miRNAs, termed metastamir and the predicted miRNA-target interactions together with the significant correlations of miRNAs that were either lost or newly appeared in the studied sample groups, afford a solid basis for further functional analyses of individual miRNAs in RCC metastatic progression.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.5106
PMCID: PMC3492794  PMID: 23139634
Renal cell carcinoma; Microarray; RT-qPCR; microRNAs; Metastasis.
6.  Intrinsic resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with poor clinical outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:295.
Background
Data on sequential therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and intrinsic resistance to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (rTKI) treatment remains vague.
Methods
We retrospectively studied treatment characteristics and outcome of mRCC patients refractory to first rTKI therapy.
Results
Thirty-five mRCC patients (male, 18; female, 11) with primary resistance to first rTKI therapy (sunitinib, n = 28; sorafenib, n = 7) and a median treatment interval of 2.4 months (1 - 4.6) were identified. In 22 patients, progressive disease (PD) was determined by a new metastatic lesion. Of these, 16 patients received subsequent therapy with 12 patients remaining refractory and 4 patients achieving disease stabilization. In 13 patients continuous growth of existing metastatic lesions determined PD. Of these, 9 received sequential therapy with 6 achieving disease stabilization. Altogether, 25 patients were treated sequentially (rTKI: n = 15; mTOR-inhibitor: n = 10) and achieved a median PFS of 3.2 months (range, 1-16.6). Fifteen patients failed to respond to either line of therapy. Disease control was not associated with type of subsequent therapy. Median OS was 14.9 months (CI: 5.5-24.4).
Conclusion
Intrinsic resistance to rTKI is associated with a low chance of response to sequential therapy and a poor prognosis in mRCC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-295
PMCID: PMC3154177  PMID: 21756335
7.  TandemHeart Insertion via a Femoral Arterial GORE-TEX Graft Conduit in a High-Risk Patient 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2008;35(4):462-465.
The TandemHeart® percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD), which provides temporary circulatory support of the left ventricle, can be used in high-risk and hemodynamically unstable patients. The easily inserted TandemHeart provides cardiac support superior to that from the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps. Herein, we discuss TandemHeart implantation via end-to-side femoral arterial grafting in a cardiac patient whose sepsis and multiorgan failure were complicated by coagulopathy and thromboembolism.
A 47-year-old woman, on intra-aortic balloon and intravenous inotropic support after an acute myocardial infarction and emergency coronary artery bypass grafting, was transferred to our institution via helicopter. She developed sepsis and multiorgan failure. Her condition was further complicated by coagulopathy and a left-lower-extremity thromboembolism. After 6 weeks of aggressive pharmacologic and intermittent intra-aortic balloon treatment, the patient developed cardiogenic shock and received a TandemHeart pVAD for short-term circulatory support. A GORE-TEX® access graft, sewn end-to-side to the femoral artery because of the patient's leg ischemia and very small vessels, served as a conduit for the TandemHeart's femoral arterial inflow cannula. Her difficult circulatory, anatomic, and coagulopathic status stabilized after 2 weeks of TandemHeart support, and she was bridged to the long-term MicroMed DeBakey VAD® Child in anticipation of heart transplantation.
The case of our patient shows that high-risk patients who have experienced cardiogenic shock with multiorgan failure and coagulopathy can benefit from the TandemHeart pVAD as a bridge to other therapeutic options, even when creative approaches to treatment and to TandemHeart insertion are required.
PMCID: PMC2607081  PMID: 19156243
Cardiac output, low/therapy; equipment design; heart failure/surgery/therapy; heart valve prosthesis implantation/methods; heart-assist devices; patient selection; risk factors; shock, cardiogenic/therapy; treatment outcome; ventricular dysfunction, left/therapy

Results 1-7 (7)