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1.  Identification of prostaglandin receptors in human ureters 
BMC Urology  2012;12:35.
Background
Prostaglandins play an important role in ureteral obstruction, but the detailed expression profiles of the prostaglandin receptors (PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER3, PTGER4, PTGFR) remain unknown in the different parts of the human ureter.
Methods
The expression pattern of PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER3, PTGER4 and PTGFR was determined in human distal, mid and proximal ureter and renal pelvis samples using immunohistochemistry (protein levels) and quantitative real-time PCR (mRNA).
Results
PTGER1 was highly expressed in most samples irrespective of the ureteral localization; however, urothelial cells had higher levels of PTGER1 than smooth muscle cells. PTGFR was also moderately to strongly expressed in urothelial and smooth muscle cells. In comparison, PTGER2-4 expression was mostly unexpressed or weakly expressed in urothelial and smooth cells in all regions.
Conclusions
Our data indicate high levels of PTGER1 in ureters.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-35
PMCID: PMC3576244  PMID: 23227994
Prostaglandin receptor; PTGER1; EP1; Ureter; Cyclooxygenase
2.  Alterations of global histone H4K20 methylation during prostate carcinogenesis 
BMC Urology  2012;12:5.
Background
Global histone modifications have been implicated in the progression of various tumour entities. Our study was designed to assess global methylation levels of histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1-3) at different stages of prostate cancer (PCA) carcinogenesis.
Methods
Global H4K20 methylation levels were evaluated using a tissue microarray in patients with clinically localized PCA (n = 113), non-malignant prostate disease (n = 27), metastatic hormone-naive PCA (mPCA, n = 30) and castration-resistant PCA (CRPC, n = 34). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess global levels of H4K20 methylation levels.
Results
Similar proportions of the normal, PCA, and mPCA prostate tissues showed strong H4K20me3 staining. CRPC tissue analysis showed the weakest immunostaining levels of H4K20me1 and H4K20me2, compared to other prostate tissues. H4K20me2 methylation levels indicated significant differences in examined tissues except for normal prostate versus PCA tissue. H4K20me1 differentiates CRPC from other prostate tissues. H4K20me1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastases, and H4K20me2 showed a significant correlation with the Gleason score. However, H4K20 methylation levels failed to predict PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Conclusions
H4K20 methylation levels constitute valuable markers for the dynamic process of prostate cancer carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-5
PMCID: PMC3323457  PMID: 22413846
Histone; Methylation; H4K20; Prostate cancer; Epigenetics

Results 1-2 (2)