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1.  CpG Island Hypermethylation Profile in the Serum of Men With Clinically Localized and Hormone Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer 
The Journal of urology  2008;179(2):529-535.
Purpose
We have noted that hypermethylation at GSTP1 in the preoperative serum of men with localized prostate cancer predicts early prostate specific antigen failure following surgical treatment. In this study we investigated the hypermethylation profile of several genes in the serum of men with localized and hormone refractory prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
We assayed the serum of 192 men with clinically localized prostate cancer and 18 with hormone refractory metastatic disease. A total of 35 serum samples from patients with negative prostate biopsy served as a negative control. CpG Island hypermethylation status of certain genes was assessed, including MDR1, EDNRB, CD44, NEP, PTGS2, RASSF1A, RAR-β and ESR1. The results of hypermethylation at GSTP1 were included from a previous study.
Results
CpG island hypermethylation at MDR1 was positive in 38.2% of cases without PSA recurrence and in 16.1% of those with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. DNA hypermethylation at the remaining 7 gene loci was not detected in the serum of patients with localized prostate cancer. In serum from metastatic prostate cancer cases CpG island hypermethylation was detected at MDR1 in 15 (83.3%), EDNRB in 9 (50%), RAR-β in 7 (38.9%), GTSP1 in 5 (27.8%) and NEP or RASSF1A in 3 (16.7%). CpG island hypermethylation at CD44, PTGS2 or ESR was not detected in any samples. All histologically normal cases were negative for CpG island hypermethylation.
Conclusions
DNA hypermethylation at MDR1 was detected in cases of localized prostate cancer. CpG island hypermethylation at several gene loci was detected in men with advanced disease. No single gene was consistently observed to be hypermethylated in men with hormone refractory disease. These results suggest that the CpG island hypermethylation status of a defined panel of genes may be a useful biomarker in men with hormone refractory prostate cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.09.038
PMCID: PMC2702714  PMID: 18076941
prostate; prostatic neoplasms; tumor markers; biological; glutathione S-transferase pi; neoplasm recurrence; local
2.  Alterations of global histone H4K20 methylation during prostate carcinogenesis 
BMC Urology  2012;12:5.
Background
Global histone modifications have been implicated in the progression of various tumour entities. Our study was designed to assess global methylation levels of histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1-3) at different stages of prostate cancer (PCA) carcinogenesis.
Methods
Global H4K20 methylation levels were evaluated using a tissue microarray in patients with clinically localized PCA (n = 113), non-malignant prostate disease (n = 27), metastatic hormone-naive PCA (mPCA, n = 30) and castration-resistant PCA (CRPC, n = 34). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess global levels of H4K20 methylation levels.
Results
Similar proportions of the normal, PCA, and mPCA prostate tissues showed strong H4K20me3 staining. CRPC tissue analysis showed the weakest immunostaining levels of H4K20me1 and H4K20me2, compared to other prostate tissues. H4K20me2 methylation levels indicated significant differences in examined tissues except for normal prostate versus PCA tissue. H4K20me1 differentiates CRPC from other prostate tissues. H4K20me1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastases, and H4K20me2 showed a significant correlation with the Gleason score. However, H4K20 methylation levels failed to predict PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Conclusions
H4K20 methylation levels constitute valuable markers for the dynamic process of prostate cancer carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-5
PMCID: PMC3323457  PMID: 22413846
Histone; Methylation; H4K20; Prostate cancer; Epigenetics

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