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1.  Treatment of upper urinary tract stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) Sonolith vision 
BMC Urology  2011;11:26.
Background
The aim was to retrospectively assess the results of treatment of upper urinary tract stones with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP, and purchased in 2004.
Methods
The subjects were 226 Japanese patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone as an initial treatment and could be followed up for at least 3 months, selected from 277 candidate patients who underwent this therapy between 2004 and 2006. Treatment effect was evaluated by kidney, ureter, and bladder X-ray or renal ultrasonography at 1 and 3 months after treatment. A stone-free status or status of stone fragmentation to 4 mm or smaller was considered to indicate effective treatment.
Results
At 3 months after treatment, the stone-free rate was 69.4% and the efficacy rate was 77.4% for renal stones, while these rates were 91.5 and 93.3%, respectively for ureteral stones. Assessment of treatment effect classified by the location of stones revealed a stone-free rate of 94.6% and an efficacy rate of 94.6% for lower ureteral stones (4.0 mm or smaller, 1 subject; 4.1-10.0 mm, 31 subjects; 10.1-20.0 mm, 5 subjects: number of treatment sessions, 1 or 2 sessions [mean: 1.03 sessions]). Complications of this therapy included renal subcapsular hematoma and pyelonephritis in 1 case each.
Conclusions
ESWL with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP produced a treatment effect equivalent to those achieved with other models of ESWL equipment. ESWL seems to be an effective first-line treatment also in patients who have lower ureteral stones 10 mm or larger but do not wish to undergo TUL, if measures such as suitable positioning of the patient during treatment are taken.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-26
PMCID: PMC3265410  PMID: 22152040
2.  Inflammatory pseudotumors of the kidney and the lung presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related disease: a case report 
Introduction
It has been reported that immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease can spread to nearly every organ, and often presents as an inflammatory mass or masses at those sites. In the kidney, this disease is often diagnosed after a radical or partial nephrectomy following the discovery of an inflammatory mass which is often suspected to be a malignant tumor. Here, we present a rare case of inflammatory pseudotumors of the kidney and the lung presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related disease, which were diagnosed by computed tomography-guided biopsies.
Case presentation
A 54-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with suspected bilateral renal cancer, multiple lung metastases and autoimmune pancreatitis. His serum immunoglobulin G4 level was high. We used computed tomography-guided biopsies and histopathological examinations of the biopsied specimens to diagnose the tumors as immunoglobulin G4-related bilateral renal and lung inflammatory pseudotumors. Our patient was treated with oral prednisolone, and after one month of treatment, contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated a general improvement, as noted by a reduction in size of the masses.
Conclusion
Renal masses that are formed due to immunoglobulin G4-related disease require comprehensive diagnosis to prevent unnecessary surgical resections from being performed. Further consideration should be paid to immunoglobulin G4-related diseases in the future.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-480
PMCID: PMC3189153  PMID: 21943114
3.  Intravesical administration of pirarubicin against superficial bladder cancer: Relationship between tumor tissue concentration and exposure time in the bladder or therapeutic effect 
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tissue concentrations and exposure times or therapeutic effect of an anthracycline anticancer drug, pirarubicin, in bladder cancer tissue after single intravesical administration against superficial bladder cancer. The concentrations of pirarubicin in tumor tissues and serum were measured at designated collection times after a single intravesical administration of pirarubicin (30 mg) in 22 patients with superficial bladder cancer. A wide range of concentrations of pirarubicin in bladder cancer tissue was observed (2.3–125 μg/g of tissue), although serum pirarubicin concentrations were not detected in any of the patients. Recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-BT) was observed in 2 patients (9%). The concentration of pirarubicin in the tumor tissue tended to be higher as the exposure time increased. There was a weak relationship between the pirarubicin tissue concentration and tumor size. However, no significant relationship between tissue pirarubicin concentrations and the prophylactic effect against intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer after TUR-BT was observed. All patients had no adverse events, such as bladder irritation and local toxicity, caused by the treatment with pirarubicin. These findings suggest that prior to single intravesical administration of pirarubicin to patients with superficial bladder cancer the exposure time and tumor size should be considered.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.315
PMCID: PMC3440819  PMID: 22977595
superficial bladder cancer; intravesical chemotherapy; pirarubicin; tumor tissue concentration; exposure time; prophylactic effect against recurrence
4.  A rare case of metastatic renal carcinoid 
BMC Urology  2010;10:22.
Background
Carcinoid is an endocrine cell tumor with low-grade atypia, which is generally a low-grade malignant cancer with a good prognosis. Metastatic renal carcinoid is even rarer than primary carcinoids.
Case presentation
We present our experience of a patient with metastatic renal carcinoid from the gastrointestinal tract.
Conclusions
The carcinoid tumor of the kidney in our patient, who had a history of liver metastasis from rectal carcinoid, was considered metastatic based on the pathological findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-22
PMCID: PMC3016340  PMID: 21144059
5.  The use of zoledronic acid in Japanese men with stage D2 prostate cancer 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(1):13-16.
Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a new generation bisphosphonate with improved efficacy benefits over pamidronate in preclinical testing. In addition, ZOL is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy. ZOL is also the first bisphosphonate to demonstrate efficacy in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors other than breast cancer, such as prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated ZOL treatment in 17 Japanese men with advanced prostate cancer, treated at the Aichi Medical University Hospital between August 2006 and November 2007. The 17 patients had biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer and were found to harbor bone metastasis upon bone scintigraphy. ZOL was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 mg over 15 min every 4 weeks. ZOL was well tolerated with mild renal dysfunction in 2 patients (11.8%), while 1 patient (5.8%) developed skin rash. No significant side effects were observed. Subjective improvement in bone pain was reported in 14 patients (32.4%). ZOL, therefore, is a safe and effective drug that remains an important component of the urologist’s armamentarium against advanced prostate cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000002
PMCID: PMC3436424  PMID: 22966248
zoledronic acid; advanced prostate cancer; bone metastasis
6.  Holmium YAG laser ablation of a hemangioma involving a lower pole renal calyx - using the new-generation flexible ureteroscope URF type P5®: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:7780.
Hemangioma of the renal calyx is a rare disease, which is difficult to diagnose and an even greater challenge to treat. We report the use of the new-generation flexible ureteroscope, in the management of a 37-year-old Asian male with a lower pole renal calyx hemangioma, which was previously inaccessible.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-7780
PMCID: PMC2740297  PMID: 19830012
7.  A New Soldier-Producing Aphid Species, Pseudoregma baenzigeri, sp. nov., from Northern Thailand 
Pseudoregma baenzigeri, sp. nov., is described from northern Thailand. This species forms dense, huge colonies on shoots of the bamboo Dendrocalamus sp., and produces many first-instar, pseudoscorpion-like soldiers. Alate sexuparae were found from the end of September to mid October. Two syrphids, Eupeodes sp. A (allied to E. confrater) and Dideoides chrysotoxoides, and the pyralid Dipha aphidivora were recorded as predators of P. baenzigeri. The aphids were also likely to be eaten by some rodents. The apterous adult, nymphs, soldier and alate sexupara of P. baenzigeri can be distinguished from those of the other congeners by the longer, conical ultimate rostral segment. A tentative key to the species of Pseudoregma living on bamboo is provided.
doi:10.1673/031.007.3801
PMCID: PMC2999437  PMID: 20233072
Aphididae; bamboo; bionomics; Cerataphidini; Hormaphidinae; Dendrocalamus
8.  Self-sacrificing gall repair by aphid nymphs. 
Insect galls are vulnerable to invasion by moth larvae that can tunnel into the wall. We report that nymphs of the aphid Nipponaphis monzeni repair their gall self-sacrificingly. When a hole was bored into their gall, many globular nymphs discharged a large amount of body fluid from their cornicles onto the gall's wound, and kneaded the fluid, which soon became viscous and eventually congealed, plastering over the hole. Having discharged the fluid, the nymphs shrivelled to approximately one-third of their original volume. Several nymphs were buried in the plaster, like 'aphid sacrifices'. This is the most elaborate social behaviour so far known among aphids.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2003.0026
PMCID: PMC1698039  PMID: 12952623

Results 1-8 (8)