Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) expressed by myeloid cells that specifically recognizes β-1,3 glucan, a polysaccharide and major component of the fungal cell wall. Upon activation, dectin-1 signaling converges, similar to NOD2, on the adaptor molecule CARD9 which is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). An early stop codon polymorphism (c.714T>G) in DECTIN-1 results in a loss-of-function (p.Y238X) and impaired cytokine responses, including TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-17 upon in vitro stimulation with Candida albicans or β-glucan. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the DECTIN-1 c.714T>G (p.Y238X) polymorphism is associated with lower disease susceptibility or severity in IBD and to investigate the level of dectin-1 expression in inflamed and non-inflamed colon tissue of IBD patients.
Paraffin embedded tissue samples from non-inflamed and inflamed colon of IBD patients and from diverticulitis patients were immunohistochemically stained for dectin-1 and related to CD68 macrophage staining. Genomic DNA of IBD patients (778 patients with Crohn's disease and 759 patients with ulcerative colitis) and healthy controls (n = 772) was genotyped for the c.714T>G polymorphism and genotype-phenotype interactions were investigated.
Increased expression of dectin-1 was observed in actively inflamed colon tissue, as compared to non-inflamed tissue of the same patients. Also an increase in dectin-1 expression was apparent in diverticulitis tissue. No statistically significant difference in DECTIN-1 c.714T>G allele frequencies was observed between IBD patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, no differences in clinical characteristics could be observed related to DECTIN-1 genotype, neither alone, nor stratified for NOD2 genotype.
Our data demonstrate that dectin-1 expression is elevated on macrophages, neutrophils, and other immune cells involved in the inflammatory reaction in IBD. The DECTIN-1 c.714T>G polymorphism however, is not a major susceptibility factor for developing IBD.