Previous studies showed that a proportion of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity. However, investigations have not yet been carried out on Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300–400g) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP) tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 µg/kg) and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8µg/kg) in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i) high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than −2 tested with phenylephrine; ii) low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between −1 and −2 tested with phenylephrine; iii) high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than −3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv) low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between −1 and −3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.
baroreceptors; hypertension; autonomic nervous system; parasympathetic nerve; sympathetic nerve.
Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women.
This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach.
Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents.
Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women.
Sex offence; Criminal; Adolescent
Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis.
This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis and indicated for physiotherapy care in a hospitalized Urgency and Emergency Unit. It was collected the clinical data of newborn through evaluation form, and we measured heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR). We measured the variables before physiotherapy treatment, 3, 6 and 9 minutes after the physiotherapy treatment.
There has been no change in HR, however, we observed a decrease in RR at 6 and 9 min compared to 3 min and increase in SpO2 at 3, 6 and 9 min compared to before physiotherapy.
Respiratory physiotherapy may be an effective therapy for the treatment of newborn with Acute Viral Bronchitis.
Bronchiolitis; Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology; Infant; Newborn; Physiotherapy (Techniques)
Although postural changes were already reported in blind adults, no previous study has investigated postural stability in blind children. Moreover, there are few studies which used a stabilometric instrument to measure postural balance. In this study we evaluated stabilometric paramaters in blind children.
We evaluated children between 7 to 12 years old, they were divided into two groups: Blind (n = 11) and age-matched control (n = 11) groups by using computerized stabilometry. The stabilometric examination was performed taking the gravity centers displacement of the individual projected into the platform. Thirthy seconds after the period in which this information was collected, the program defined a medium-pressure center, which was used to define x and y axes displacement and the distance between the pressure center and the platform center. Furthermore, the average sway rate and the body sway area were obtained by dividing the pressure center displacement and the time spent on the task; and by an ellipse function (95% percentille), respectively. Percentages of anterior, posterior, left and right feet weight also were calculated. Variables were compared by using the Student’s t test for unpaired data. Significance level was considered for p <0.05.
Displacement of the x axis (25.55 ± 9.851 vs. -3.545 ± 7.667; p <0.05) and average sway rate (19.18 ± 2.7 vs. -10.55 ± 1.003; p <0.001) were increased in the blind children group. Percentage of left foot weight was reduced (45.82 ± 2.017 vs. 52.36 ± 1.33; p <0.05) while percentage of right foot weight was increased (54.18 ± 2.17 vs. 47.64 ± 1.33; p <0.05) in blind children. Other variables did not show differences.
Blind children present impaired stabilometric parameters.
Postural balance; Visual disorders; Musculoskeletal system
The heart rate variability is a useful method to assess cardiac autonomic modulation in patients undergoing dental procedures, because knowledge of physiological conditions provides greater security to the professional as well as the possibility of a better plan treatment to patient benefit. The aim of our study was to describe the association between cardiac autonomic control and dental variables. We consulted the databases Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane, using the terms “autonomic”, “dentistry”, “heart rate variability”, “cardiovascular physiology.” The selected studies indicated a strong relationship between dental variables and HRV. There was an association between malocclusion, TMD, dental procedures cirugia and low HRV. Thus, they become more studies that relate to HRV in dental science, especially in clinical practice.
Dentistry; Autonomic nervous system; Cardiovascular system
To assess the motor development of infants exposed to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Thirty infants were assessed in the period from November 2009 to March 2010 at the AIDS Reference and Training Centre, in São Paulo, Brazil. The assessment instrument used in the research was the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). All 30 infants used the antiretroviral drug properly for 42 consecutive days, in accordance with the protocol of the World Health Organization.
Out of the total number of infants, 27 (90%) had proper motor performance and 3 (10%) presented motor delay, according to the AIMS.
This study demonstrated that only 10% of the assessed group had developmental delay and no relation with environmental variables was detected, such as maternal level of education, social and economic issues, maternal practices, attendance at the day care center, and drug use during pregnancy. It is important to emphasize the necessity of studies with a larger number of participants.
Motor development; Assessment; HIV/AIDS; Early intervention; Physiotherapy
We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls.
Materials and method
This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages.
In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2–sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively.
Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents.
Adolescents; Obesity; Early puberty; Scholar children
We aimed to establish values and parameters using multislice reconstruction in axial computerized tomography (CT) in order to quantify the erosion of the glenoid cavity in cases of shoulder instability.
We studied two groups using CT. Group I had normal subjects and Group II had patients with shoulder instability. We measured values of the vertical segment, the superior horizontal, medial and inferior segments, and also calculated the ratio of the horizontal superior and inferior segments of the glenoid cavity in both normal subjects and those with shoulder instability. These variables were recorded during arthroscopy for cases with shoulder instability.
The mean values were 40.87 mm, 17.86 mm, 26.50 mm, 22.86 mm and 0.79 for vertical segment, the superior horizontal, medial and inferior segments, and the ratio between horizontal superior and inferior segments of the glenoid cavity respectively, in normal subjects. For subjects with unstable shoulders the mean values were 37.33 mm, 20.83 mm, 23.07 mm and 0.91 respectively. Arthroscopic measurements yielded an inferior segment value of 24.48 mm with a loss of 2.39 mm (17.57%). The ratio between the superior and inferior segments of the glenoid cavity was 0.79. This value can be used as a normative value for evaluating degree of erosion of the anterior border of the glenoid cavity. However, values found using CT should not be used on a comparative basis with values found during arthroscopy.
Computerized tomographic measurements of the glenoid cavity yielded reliable values consistent with those in the literature.
Shoulder joint; Arthroscopy; Tomography; Glenoid cavith; Grafting bone
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease endemic in some undeveloped areas, and still represents a public health problem in Brazil. Therefore, the control of this endemic disease depends necessarily on the institution of correct treatment and containment of treatment dropout. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of published studies on treatment dropout of leprosy.
We conducted a systematic review of articles on treatment dropout of leprosy, published between january 2005 and april 2013, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases. The search was performed using the MeSH terms: “leprosy”; “patients dropouts” and the keywords: “leprosy, treatment” and “noncompliance, leprosy” in association, beside the equivalents in Portuguese.
There were originally 196 references. After analyzing the titles and abstracts of articles, 20 articles were obtained and included in the final sample.
Leprosy is a notifiable disease known as its disfiguring capability and the high rate of non-compliance to treatment. The low adhesion is responsible for the remaining potential sources of infection, irreversible complications, incomplete cure and, additionally, may lead to resistance to multiple drugs. Many factors are responsible for the interruption or dropout treatment: socioeconomic factors, education level, knowledge about the disease, lack of efficiency of health services, demographics, side effects of drugs, alcoholism, among others.
The recent scientific literature about the subject diverge regarding the factors that most affect the dropout problem in treating leprosy patients. However, better integration between professionals and users, and greater commitment of the patient, are common points among the authors of the studies.
Leprosy; Patient dropout; Treatment; Adhesion
There are no data in the literature with regard to the acute effects of different styles of music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability. In this study, we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability in women.
We conducted this study in 21 healthy women ranging in age from 18 to 35 years. We excluded persons with previous experience with musical instruments and persons who had an affinity for the song styles. We evaluated two groups: Group 1 (n = 21), who were exposed to relaxant classical baroque musical and excitatory heavy metal auditory stimulation; and Group 2 (n = 19), who were exposed to both styles of music and white noise auditory stimulation. Using earphones, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes. After the first music exposure to baroque or heavy metal music, they remained at rest for five minutes; subsequently, they were re-exposed to the opposite music (70-80 dB). A different group of women were exposed to the same music styles plus white noise auditory stimulation (90 dB). The sequence of the songs was randomized for each individual. We analyzed the following indices: triangular index, triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincaré plot (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability, standard deviation of the long-term RR interval, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of the long-term RR interval ratio), low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency ratio, standard deviation of all the normal RR intervals, root-mean square of differences between the adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms. Heart rate variability was recorded at rest for 10 minutes.
The triangular index and the standard deviation of the long-term RR interval indices were reduced during exposure to both music styles in the first group and tended to decrease in the second group whereas the white noise exposure decreased the high frequency index. We observed no changes regarding the triangular interpolation of RR intervals, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability/standard deviation in the long-term RR interval ratio.
We suggest that relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music slightly decrease global heart rate variability because of the equivalent sound level.
Autonomic Nervous System; Auditory Stimulation; Cardiovascular System; Music
The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental.
It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used.
We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses.
We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management.
Medical waste; Housing; Environmental health
Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke.
Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V). The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm). The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus) and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus). Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL) into the 4th V.
Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (p<0.05) to a greater extent in WKY rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke than in WKY rats exposed to fresh air. However, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, the effect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (p<0.05).
Administration of a catalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.
Oxidative Stress; Catalase; Medulla Oblongata; Tobacco; Air Pollutants
This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) for 3 weeks.
A total of 20 males Wistar rats (320–370g) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4thV). Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) measurement and drug infusion, respectively. Rats were exposed to SSCS for three weeks, 180 minutes per day, 5 days/week [carbon monoxide (CO): 100–300 ppm)]. Baroreflex was tested with one pressor dose of phenylephrine (PHE, 8 μg/kg, bolus) and one depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 μg/kg, bolus). Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 15 minutes after 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ, catalase inhibitor, 0.001g/100μL) injection into the 4th V.
Vehicle treatment into the 4th V did not change cardiovascular responses. Central catalase inhibition increased tachycardic peak, attenuated bradycardic peak and reduced HR range at 15 minutes, increased MAP at 5, 15 and 30 min and increased HR at 5 and 15 min. In rats exposed to SSCS, central ATZ increased basal MAP after 5 min and increased HR at 5, 15 and 30 minutes, respectively, and attenuated bradycardic peak at 15 minutes.
This study suggests that brain oxidative stress caused by SSCS influences autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system.
Baroreflex; Oxidative Stress; Catalase inhibition; Medulla Oblongata; sidestream cigarette smoking
The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review.
References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review.
The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight.
Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances.
Diet; Nutrition; Physical exercise; Muscle dysmorphia
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone metabolism in which bisphosphonates (BPS) are the most common medications used in its treatment, whose main objective is to reduce the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis.
Systematic review of articles on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis, indexed on MEDLINE (via PubMed) databases, from inception of databases until January 2013. Search terms were “Adherence, Medication” (MeSH term), “Bisphosphonates” (MeSH term), and “Osteoporosis” (MeSH term).
Of the 78 identified studies, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Identified studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding adherence and associated factors, adherence and fracture, adherence and BPs dosage. The studies are mostly observational, conducted with women over 45 years old, showing low rates of adherence to treatment. Several factors may influence adherence: socio-economic and cultural, participation of physicians when guidance is given to the patient, the use of bone turnover markers, and use of generic drugs. The monthly dosage is associated with greater adherence compared to weekly dosage.
Considering the methodological differences between the studies, the results converge to show that adherence to treatment of osteoporosis with BPs is still inadequate. Further experimental studies are needed to evaluate the adherence and suggest new treatment options.
Bone and bones; Bisphosphonates; Medication adherence; Osteoporosis
Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive social and communicative impairments, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Its causes and effects have been researched from various neurocognitive theoretical perspectives and with the aid of neuroimaging technology. We aimed to describe biopsychosocial processes characteristic of the Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Literature review using Medline and Scopus databases published between 2001 and 2011, with the keywords "autism", "theory of mind", "executive functions", "central coherence" and “fMRI”.
The studies found were plotted and organized into tables and an explanatory diagram of the main findings was produced.
The most popular neurocognitive theories are still unable to fully explain the characteristics of the complications that autistic spectrum disorder causes to the quality of life of individuals living with autism. The association of clinical research and neuroimaging may contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of the brain affected by the disorder.
Autistic disorder; Mental disorder; Central coherence; fMRI
The aim of this study was evaluate the late-onset repercussions of heart alterations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) after a 13-year follow up.
A historical prospective study was carried out involving the analysis of data from the charts of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lupus in follow up since 1998. The 13-year evolution was systematically reviewed and tabulated to facilitate the interpretation of the data.
Forty-eight patient charts were analyzed. Mean patient age was 34.5 ± 10.8 years at the time of diagnosis and 41.0 ± 10.3 years at the time of the study (45 women and 3 men). Eight deaths occurred in the follow-up period (two due to heart problems). Among the alterations found on the complementary exams, 46.2% of cases demonstrated worsening at reevaluation and four patients required a heart catheterization. In these cases, coronary angioplasty was performed due to the severity of the obstructions and one case required a further catheterization, culminating in the need for surgical myocardial revascularization.
The analysis demonstrated progressive heart impairment, with high rates of alterations on conventional complementary exams, including the need for angioplasty or revascularization surgery in four patients. These findings indicate the need for rigorous cardiac follow up in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lupus erythematosus systemic; Cardiovascular diseases
The literature has already demonstrated that cigarette influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we performed a literature review in order to investigate the relationship between sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) and cardiac autonomic regulation.
Searches were performed on Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the crossing between the key-words: “cigarette smoking”, “autonomic nervous system”, “air pollution” and “heart rate variability”.
The selected studies indicated that SSCS exposure affects the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to changes in arterial blood pressure. Moreover, heart rate responses to environmental tobacco smoke are increased in smokers compared to non-smokers. The mechanism involved on this process suggest increased oxidative stress in brainstem areas that regulate the cardiovascular system.
Further studies are necessary to add new elements in the literature to improve new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders in subjects exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke.
Autonomic nervous system; Cigarette smoking; Cardiovascular physiology; Air pollution
Radiotherapy is an important tool in the control of pain in patients with spinal metastatic disease. We aimed to evaluate pain and of quality of life of patients with spinal metastatic disease undergoing radiotherapy with supportive treatment.
The study enrolled 30 patients. From January 2008 to January 2010, patients selection included those treated with a 20 Gy tumour dose in five fractions. Patients completed the visual analogue scale for pain assessment and the SF-36 questionnaire for quality of life assessment.
The most frequent primary sites were breast, multiple myeloma, prostate and lymphoma. It was found that 14 spinal metastatic disease patients (46.66%) had restricted involvement of three or fewer vertebrae, while 16 patients (53.33%) had cases involving more than three vertebrae. The data from the visual analogue scale evaluation of pain showed that the average initial score was 5.7 points, the value 30 days after the end of radiotherapy was 4.60 points and the average value 6 months after treatment was 4.25 points. Notably, this final value was 25.43% lower than the value from the initial analysis. With regard to the quality of life evaluation, only the values for the functional capability and social aspects categories of the questionnaire showed significant improvement.
Radiotherapy with supportive treatment appears to be an important tool for the treatment of pain in patients with spinal metastatic disease.
Radiotherapy; Neoplasm metastasis; Quality of life
Cerebral Palsy (CP) presents changes in posture and movement as a core characteristic, which requires multiprofessional clinical treatments during children’s habilitation or rehabilitation. Besides clinical treatment, it is fundamental that professionals use evaluation systems to quantify the difficulties presented to the individual and their families in their daily lives. We aimed to investigate the functional capacity of individuals with CP and the amount of assistance required by the caregiver in day-to-day activities.
Twenty patients with CP, six-year-old on average, were evaluated. The Pediatric Evaluation Inventory of Incapacities was used (PEDI - Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory), a system adapted for Brazil that evaluates child's dysfunction in three 3 dimensions: self-care, mobility and social function. To compare the three areas, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used.
We found the following results regarding the functional capacity of children: self-care, 27.4%, ±17.5; mobility, 25.8%, ±33.3 and social function, 36.3%, ±27.7. The results of the demand of aid from the caregiver according to each dimension were: self-care, 9.7%, ±19.9; mobility, 14.1%, ± 20.9 and social function, 19.8%, ±26.1.
We indicated that there was no difference between the performance of the subjects in areas of self-care, mobility and social function considering the functional skills and assistance required by the caregiver.
Cerebral palsy; Activities of daily living; Self care
We aimed to investigate the effect of rest interval, between successive contractions, on muscular fatigue.
Eighteen subjects performed elbow flexion and extension (30 repetitions) on an isokinetic dynamometer with 80º of range of motion. The flexion velocity was 120º/s, while for elbow extension we used 5 different velocities (30, 75, 120, 240, 360º/s), producing 5 different rest intervals (2.89, 1.28, 0.85, 0.57 and 0.54 s).
We observed that when the rest interval was 2.89 s there was a reduction in fatigue. On the other hand, when the rest interval was 0.54 s the fatigue was increased.
When the resting time was lower (0.54 s) the decline of work in the flexor muscle group was higher compared with different rest interval duration.
Fatigue; Elbow; Muscles; Torque; Rest interval
To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents.
Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables.
The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80).
There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents.
Adolescent health; Condom; Condom use; Sexual and reproductive health; Cape Verde; West Africa
Congenital diaphragmatic Bochdaleck hernia is an anatomical defect of the diaphragm, which allows protrusion of abdominal viscera into the chest, causing serious pulmonary and cardiac complications in the neonate. In this study we aimed to present a case of congenital Bochdaleck hernia. We investigated a 40 weeks old child, with a pregnancy carried out in a public hospital in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We suggest that if diagnosis occurs in the prenatal period, the prognosis of this disease improves. As a consequence, it allows the parity of the fetus to occur in a higher complexity center, optimizing the chances of survival.
Hernia; Diaphragmatic; Prenatal Care; Infant; Newborn
Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is related to higher morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the linear and nonlinear indices of the HRV in stable angina patients submitted to coronary angiography.
We studied 77 unselected patients for elective coronary angiography, which were divided into two groups: coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-CAD groups. For analysis of HRV indices, HRV was recorded beat by beat with the volunteers in the supine position for 40 minutes. We analyzed the linear indices in the time (SDNN [standard deviation of normal to normal], NN50 [total number of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50ms] and RMSSD [root-mean square of differences]) and frequency domains ultra-low frequency (ULF) ≤ 0,003 Hz, very low frequency (VLF) 0,003 – 0,04 Hz, low frequency (LF) (0.04–0.15 Hz), and high frequency (HF) (0.15–0.40 Hz) as well as the ratio between LF and HF components (LF/HF). In relation to the nonlinear indices we evaluated SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, approximate entropy (−ApEn), α1, α2, Lyapunov Exponent, Hurst Exponent, autocorrelation and dimension correlation. The definition of the cutoff point of the variables for predictive tests was obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under the ROC curve was calculated by the extended trapezoidal rule, assuming as relevant areas under the curve ≥ 0.650.
Coronary arterial disease patients presented reduced values of SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, HF, SD1, SD2 and -ApEn. HF ≤ 66 ms2, RMSSD ≤ 23.9 ms, ApEn ≤−0.296 and NN50 ≤ 16 presented the best discriminatory power for the presence of significant coronary obstruction.
We suggest the use of Heart Rate Variability Analysis in linear and nonlinear domains, for prognostic purposes in patients with stable angina pectoris, in view of their overall impairment.
Heart rate variability; Nonlinear dynamics; Coronary artery disease; Cardiovascular physiology; Stable angina
In this study we aimed to evaluate the peak cough flow (PCF) in healthy Brazilian subjects.
We evaluated 484 healthy subjects between 18 and 40 years old. Subjects were seated and oriented were asked to perform a maximal inspiration followed by a quick, short and explosive expiration on the peak flow meter. Three measures were carried out and recorded the average of the three results for each individual.
The PCF values ranged between 240 and 500 L/min. The PCF values were lower in females than in males. The PCF was inversely proportional to age.
The values for Brazilian adult healthy subjects regarding PCF were between 240 and 500 L/min.
Respiration; Cough; Peak expiratory flow rate; Physiology