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2.  Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) and pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP): a protocol of a cohort study on the diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value of PSP and PAP as postoperative markers of septic complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery (PSP study) 
BMJ Open  2014;4(3):e004914.
Introduction
Major abdominal surgery leads to a postoperative systemic inflammatory response, making it difficult to discriminate patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome from those with a beginning postoperative infectious complication. At present, physicians have to rely on their clinical experience to differentiate between the two. Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) and pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), both secretory proteins produced by the pancreas, are dramatically increased during pancreatic disease and have been shown to act as acute-phase proteins. Increased levels of PSP have been detected in polytrauma patients developing sepsis and PSP has shown a high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating the severity of peritonitis and in predicting death in intensive care unit patients. However, the prognostic value of PSP/PAP for infectious complications among patients undergoing major abdominal surgery is unknown.
Methods and analysis
160 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery will be recruited preoperatively. On the day before surgery, baseline blood values are attained. Following surgery, daily blood samples for measuring regular inflammatory markers (c-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and leucocyte counts) and PSP/PAP will be acquired. PSP/PAP will be measured using a validated ELISA developed in our research laboratory. Patient's discharge marks the end of his/her trial participation. Complication grade including mortality and occurrence of infectious postoperative complications according to validated diagnostic criteria will be correlated with PSP/PAP values. Total intensive care unit days and total length of stay will be recorded as further outcome parameters.
Ethics and dissemination
The PSP trial is a prospective monocentric cohort study evaluating the prognostic value of PSP and PAP for postoperative infectious complications. In addition, a comparison with established inflammatory markers in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery will be performed to help evaluate the role of these proteins in predicting and diagnosing infectious and other postoperative complications.
Institution ethics board approval ID
KEKZH-Nr. STV 11-2009.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258179.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004914
PMCID: PMC3948573  PMID: 24604486
3.  Laparoscopic gastric pouch and remnant resection: a novel approach to refractory anastomotic ulcers after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Case report 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:33.
Background
Anastomotic or marginal ulcers occur in 0.6 to 16% of patients after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y-Gastric Bypass. Initial therapy aims at eliminating known risk factors including smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibition of gastric acid secretion. While this approach is successful in 68 to 88% of the cases, up to one third of patients need a subsequent surgical revision. However, marginal ulcers still recur in up to 10% of cases after revisional surgery, thus constituting a serious challenge for bariatric surgeons.
Case presentation
We herein report a case of an insidious marginal ulcer refractory to both medical therapy with high-dosed proton pump inhibitors and sucralfate as well as surgical therapy consisting of the lengthening of a short alimentary limb and later resection of the gastroenterostomy and construction of a new tension-free anastomosis. Only after gastrectomy by laparoscopic en-bloc resection of the gastrojejunostomy, the gastric pouch and resection of the gastric remnant with reconstruction by esophagojejunostomy the patient remained free of symptoms.
Conclusion
By laparoscopic resection of the entire gastric pouch and the gastric remnant the risk to leave a suboptimally vascularised or even ischemic pouch in situ was avoided. The esophagojejunostomy was then created in healthy, good vascularised tissue. In our case this novel approach was effective in the management of a refractory anastomotic ulcer and might represent a rescue option when simple revision of the gastrojejunostomy fails.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-33
PMCID: PMC3247190  PMID: 22136170
Roux-en-Y-Gastric Bypass; bariatric surgery; anastomotic ulcer; marginal ulcer; obesity
4.  Circulating Tumor Cells in Gastrointestinal Malignancies: Current Techniques and Clinical Implications 
Journal of Oncology  2009;2010:392652.
Since their introduction more than 50 years by Engell, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been evaluated in cancer patients and their detection has been correlated with clinical outcome, in esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer. With the availability of refined technologies, the identification of CTCs from peripheral blood is emerging as a useful tool for the detection of malignancy, monitoring disease progression, and measuring response to therapy. However, increasing evidence suggests a variety of factors to be responsible for disease progression. The analysis of a single CTC marker is therefore unlikely to accurately predict progression of disease with sufficient resolution and reproducibility. Here we discuss the current concept of CTCs, summarize the available techniques for their detection and characterization, and aim to provide a comprehensive update on the clinical implications of CTCs in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies.
doi:10.1155/2010/392652
PMCID: PMC2774472  PMID: 19902005
5.  Early Results of the Swiss Multicentre Bypass or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS) 
Annals of Surgery  2013;258(5):690-695.
We performed a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). A total of 107 patients underwent LSG and 110 patients underwent LRYGB. The operative time was less for LSG than for LRYGB (87 ± 52.3 minutes vs 108 ± 42.3 minutes; P = 0.003). We observed a trend toward more early complications in LRYGB than in LSG (17.2% vs 8.4%; P = 0.067). Excessive body mass index loss 1 year after the operation was similar (72.3% ± 22% for LSG and 76.6% ± 21% for LRYGB). The comorbidities and quality of life were significantly improved by both procedures.
Objective:
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been proposed as an effective alternative to the current standard procedure, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Prospective data comparing both procedures are rare. Therefore, we performed a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness and safety of these 2 operative techniques.
Methods:
Two hundred seventeen patients were randomized at 4 bariatric centers in Switzerland. One hundred seven patients underwent LSG using a 35-F bougie with suturing of the stapler line, and 110 patients underwent LRYGB with a 150-cm antecolic alimentary and a 50-cm biliopancreatic limb. The mean body mass index of all patients was 44 ± 11.1 kg/m2, the mean age was 43 ± 5.3 years, and 72% were female.
Results:
The 2 groups were similar in terms of body mass index, age, sex, comorbidities, and eating behavior. The mean operative time was less for LSG than for LRYGB (87 ± 52.3 minutes vs 108 ± 42.3 minutes; P = 0.003). The conversion rate was 0.9% in both groups. Complications (<30 days) occurred more often in LRYGB than in LSG (17.2% vs 8.4%; P = 0.067). However, the difference in severe complications did not reach statistical significance (4.5% for LRYGB vs 1% for LSG; P = 0.21). Excessive body mass index loss 1 year after the operation was similar between the 2 groups (72.3% ± 22% for LSG and 76.6% ± 21% for LRYGB; P = 0.2). Except for gastroesophageal reflux disease, which showed a higher resolution rate after LRYGB, the comorbidities and quality of life were significantly improved after both procedures.
Conclusions:
LSG was associated with shorter operation time and a trend toward fewer complications than with LRYGB. Both procedures were almost equally efficient regarding weight loss, improvement of comorbidities, and quality of life 1 year after surgery. Long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these facts.
doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a67426
PMCID: PMC3888472  PMID: 23989054
comorbidities; gastric bypass; perioperative complications; randomized clinical trial; sleeve gastrectomy

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