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1.  Emergency double balloon enteroscopy: a feasible and promising diagnostic as well as possible therapeutic option in recurrent midgut bleeding 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0620103068.
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding, in particular originating within the long segment of the small intestine, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The authors describe the potential utility of emergency double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) for small bowel bleeding. An elderly woman was admitted because of a hypertensive crisis to the medical department of a regional hospital. Her medical history was significant for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) abuse. While in hospital she had massive obscure GI bleeding. Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy for recurrent bleeding showed only thrombotic residuals in two sigmoid diverticuli, which led to segmental resection of the sigmoid colon. However, postoperatively, bleeding recurred leading to transfer to our university hospital. Immediate angiography only revealed a vascular malformation at the upper jejunum but no ongoing bleeding. Subsequent emergency DBE detected an oozing jejunal ulcer, which was coagulated using a argon beamer. Because of recurrent falls in haemoglobin with the need for repeated transfusion, the patient underwent surgical reintervention including segmental resection of the ulcerated upper jejunum with subsequent end-to-end anastomosis. Histopathology revealed NSAID-induced ulcerous jejunopathy. Postoperatively, there was no further bleeding and the patient was discharged home in a stable condition. In conclusion, this is one of the first reports of successful emergency use of DBE in a case of recurrent and occult bleeding within the small bowel which successfully located the source of bleeding and facilitated successful superficial ulcer coagulation with an argon beamer to prevent further bleeding.
doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2010.3068
PMCID: PMC3070338  PMID: 22700075
2.  Complications and nutrient deficiencies two years after sleeve gastrectomy 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:13.
Background
The aim of this systematic study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) during a median follow-up of two years.
Methods
Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL).
Results
From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 100 patients (female: male = 59:41) with a mean age of 43.6 years (range: 22–64) and a preoperative BMI of 52.3 kg/² (range: 36–77) underwent SG. The mean operative time was 86.4 min (range: 35–275). Major complications were observed in 8.0 % of the patients. During the follow-up period, 25 patients (25.0 %) underwent a second bariatric intervention (22 DS and 3 RYGBP). Out of the total 100 patients, 48 % were supplemented with iron, 33 % with zinc, 34 % with a combination of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, 24 % with vitamin D, 42 % with vitamin B12 and 40 % with folic acid. The patients who received only a SG (n = 75) had %EWL of 53.6, 65.8 and 62.6 % after 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively.
Conclusions
SG is a highly effective bariatric intervention for morbidly obese patients. Nutritional deficiencies resulting from the procedure can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Results of the study show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggested routinely.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-13
PMCID: PMC3413543  PMID: 22765843
Sleeve gastrectomy; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Obesity; Metabolic surgery; Bariatric surgery; Nutritional deficiencies
3.  Complications, Reoperations, and Nutrient Deficiencies Two Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy 
Journal of Obesity  2012;2012:828737.
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) during a follow-up of two years. Methods. Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included operative time, complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Results. From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 82 patients (female : male = 48 : 34) with a mean age of 43.3 years (range: 22–64) and a preoperative BMI of 52.5 kg/m² (range: 36.8–77.0) underwent SG. Major complications were observed in 9.8% of the patients, with 1 death. During follow up 51.2% of patients were supplemented with iron, 36.6% with zinc, 37.8% with calcium, 26.8% with vitamin D, 46.3% with vitamin B12 and 41.5% with folic acid. %EWL was 54.3, 65.3 and 62.6% after 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion. SG as a single step procedure is an effective bariatric intervention. Nutritional deficiencies after SG can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Our results show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggest routinely after SG.
doi:10.1155/2012/828737
PMCID: PMC3364598  PMID: 22685635
4.  The influence of polymorbidity, revascularization, and wound therapy on the healing of arterial ulceration 
Objective
An ulcer categorized as Fontaine’s stage IV represents a chronic wound, risk factor of arteriosclerosis, and co-morbidities which disturb wound healing. Our objective was to analyze wound healing and to assess potential factors affecting the healing process.
Methods
199 patients were included in this 5-year study. The significance levels were determined by chi-squared and log-rank tests. The calculation of patency rate followed the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results
Mean age and co-morbidities did not differ from those in current epidemiological studies. Of the patients with ulcer latency of more than 13 weeks (up to one year), 40% required vascular surgery. Vascular surgery was not possible for 53 patients and they were treated conservatively. The amputation rate in the conservatively treated group was 37%, whereas in the revascularizated group it was only 16%. Ulcers in patients with revascularization healed in 92% of cases after 24 weeks. In contrast, we found a healing rate of only 40% in the conservatively treated group (p < 0.001). Revascularization appeared more often in diabetic patients (n = 110; p < 0.01) and the wound size and number of infections were elevated (p = 0.03). Among those treated conservatively, wound healing was decelerated (p = 0.01/0.02; χ2 test).
Conclusions
The success of revascularization, presence of diabetes mellitus, and wound treatment proved to be prognostic factors for wound healing in arterial ulcers.
PMCID: PMC2515428  PMID: 18827918
arterial leg ulcer; wound management; risk factors; revascularization
5.  Early Involvement of Death-Associated Protein Kinase Promoter Hypermethylation in the Carcinogenesis of Barrett's Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Its Association with Clinical Progression1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2007;9(3):236-245.
Esophageal Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BA) develops through a multistage process, which is associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by promoter CpG island hypermethylation. In this study, we explored the promoter hypermethylation and protein expression of proapoptotic deathassociated protein kinase (DAPK) during the multistep Barrett's carcinogenesis cascade. Early BA and paired samples of premalignant lesions of 61 patients were analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. For the association of clinicopathological markers and protein expression, an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis of 66 additional BAs of advanced tumor stages was performed. Hypermethylation of DAPK promoter was detected in 20% of normal mucosa, 50% of Barrett's metaplasia, 53% of dysplasia, and 60% of adenocarcinomas, and resulted in a marked decrease in DAPK protein expression (P < .01). The loss of DAPK protein was significantly associated with advanced depth of tumor invasion and advanced tumor stages (P < .001). Moreover, the severity of reflux esophagitis correlated significantly with the hypermethylation rate of the DAPK promoter (P < .003). Thus, we consider DAPK inactivation by promoter hypermethylation as an early event in Barrett's carcinogenesis and suggest that a decreased protein expression of DAPK likely plays a role in the development and progression of BA.
PMCID: PMC1838580  PMID: 17401463
Barrett's adenocarcinoma; Barrett's metaplasia; DAPK; reflux esophagitis; inflammation
6.  Role of cathepsin B in intracellular trypsinogen activation and the onset of acute pancreatitis 
Autodigestion of the pancreas by its own prematurely activated digestive proteases is thought to be an important event in the onset of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism responsible for the intrapancreatic activation of digestive zymogens is unknown, but a recent hypothesis predicts that a redistribution of lysosomal cathepsin B (CTSB) into a zymogen-containing subcellular compartment triggers this event. To test this hypothesis, we used CTSB-deficient mice in which the ctsb gene had been deleted by targeted disruption. After induction of experimental secretagogue–induced pancreatitis, the trypsin activity in the pancreas of ctsb–/– animals was more than 80% lower than in ctsb+/+ animals. Pancreatic damage as indicated by serum activities of amylase and lipase, or by the extent of acinar tissue necrosis, was 50% lower in ctsb–/– animals. These experiments provide the first conclusive evidence to our knowledge that cathepsin B plays a role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation and the onset of acute pancreatitis.
PMCID: PMC381392  PMID: 10995788

Results 1-6 (6)