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1.  Failure of available scoring systems to predict ongoing infection in patients with abdominal sepsis after their initial emergency laparotomy 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:38.
Background
To examine commonly used scoring systems, designed to predict overall outcome in critically ill patients, for their ability to select patients with an abdominal sepsis that have ongoing infection needing relaparotomy.
Methods
Data from a RCT comparing two surgical strategies was used. The study population consisted of 221 patients at risk for ongoing abdominal infection. The following scoring systems were evaluated with logistic regression analysis for their ability to select patients requiring a relaparotomy: APACHE-II score, SAPS-II, Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), MODS, SOFA score, and the acute part of the APACHE-II score (APS).
Results
The proportion of patients requiring a relaparotomy was 32% (71/221). Only 2 scores had a discriminatory ability in identifying patients with ongoing infection needing relaparotomy above chance: the APS on day 1 (AUC 0.61; 95%CI 0.52-0.69) and the SOFA score on day 2 (AUC 0.60; 95%CI 0.52-0.69). However, to correctly identify 90% of all patients needing a relaparotomy would require such a low cut-off value that around 80% of all patients identified by these scoring systems would have negative findings at relaparotomy.
Conclusions
None of the widely-used scoring systems to predict overall outcome in critically ill patients are of clinical value for the identification of patients with ongoing infection needing relaparotomy. There is a need to develop more specific tools to assist physicians in their daily monitoring and selection of these patients after the initial emergency laparotomy.
Trial registration number
ISRCTN: ISRCTN 51729393
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-38
PMCID: PMC3268736  PMID: 22196238
2.  Spontaneous splenic rupture during Pringle maneuver in liver surgery 
World Journal of Hepatology  2010;2(6):243-245.
During liver resection clamping of the hepato-duodenal ligament (the Pringle maneuver) is performed to reduce intraoperative blood-loss. During this maneuver acute portal hypertension may lead to spontaneous splenic rupture requiring rapid splenectomy in order to control blood loss. We present 2 case of patients with hemorrhage from the spleen during clamping for liver surgery. A review of the literature with an emphasis on the pathophysiology of splenic hemorrhage is presented.
doi:10.4254/wjh.v2.i6.243
PMCID: PMC2999285  PMID: 21161004
Spleen; Rupture; Pringle maneuver; Liver surgery
3.  Costs of relaparotomy on-demand versus planned relaparotomy in patients with severe peritonitis: an economic evaluation within a randomized controlled trial 
Critical Care  2010;14(3):R97.
Introduction
Results of the first randomized trial comparing on-demand versus planned-relaparotomy strategy in patients with severe peritonitis (RELAP trial) indicated no clear differences in primary outcomes. We now report the full economic evaluation for this trial, including detailed methods, nonmedical costs, further differentiated cost calculations, and robustness of different assumptions in sensitivity analyses.
Methods
An economic evaluation was conducted from a societal perspective alongside a randomized controlled trial in 229 patients with severe secondary peritonitis and an acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)-II score ≥11 from two academic and five regional teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. After the index laparotomy, patients were randomly allocated to an on-demand or a planned-relaparotomy strategy. Primary resource-utilization data were used to estimate mean total costs per patient during the index admission and after discharge until 1 year after the index operation. Overall differences in costs between the on-demand relaparotomy strategy and the planned strategy, as well as relative differences across several clinical subgroups, were evaluated.
Results
Costs were substantially lower in the on-demand group (mean, €65,768 versus €83,450 per patient in the planned group; mean absolute difference, €17,682; 95% CI, €5,062 to €29,004). Relative differences in mean total costs per patient (approximately 21%) were robust to various alternative assumptions. Planned relaparotomy consistently generated more costs across the whole range of different courses of disease (quick recovery and few resources used on one end of the spectrum; slow recovery and many resources used on the other end). This difference in costs between the two surgical strategies also did not vary significantly across several clinical subgroups.
Conclusions
The reduction in societal costs renders the on-demand strategy a more-efficient relaparotomy strategy in patients with severe peritonitis. These differences were found across the full range of healthcare resources as well as across patients with different courses of disease.
Trial Registration
ISRCTN51729393
doi:10.1186/cc9032
PMCID: PMC2911734  PMID: 20507557
4.  Single-drug therapy or selective decontamination of the digestive tract as antifungal prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a systematic review 
Critical Care  2007;11(6):R126.
Introduction
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the effectiveness of different prophylactic antifungal therapies in critically ill patients on the incidence of yeast colonisation, infection, candidemia, and hospital mortality.
Methods
A systematic review was conducted of prospective trials including adult non-neutropenic patients, comparing single-drug antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) or selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) with controls and with each other.
Results
Thirty-three studies were included (11 SAP and 22 SDD; 5,529 patients). Compared with control groups, both SAP and SDD reduced the incidence of yeast colonisation (SAP: odds ratio [OR] 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 0.70; SDD: OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.29) and infection (SAP: OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.75; SDD: OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.45). Treatment effects were significantly larger in SDD trials than in SAP trials. The incidence of candidemia was reduced by SAP (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.82) but not by SDD (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.40). In-hospital mortality was reduced predominantly by SDD (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.93, numbers needed to treat 15; SAP: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.00). Effectiveness of prophylaxis reduced with an increased proportion of included surgical patients.
Conclusion
Antifungal prophylaxis (SAP or SDD) is effective in reducing yeast colonisation and infections across a range of critically ill patients. Indirect comparisons suggest that SDD is more effective in reducing yeast-related outcomes, except for candidemia.
doi:10.1186/cc6191
PMCID: PMC2246222  PMID: 18067657
5.  Long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients after secondary peritonitis 
Critical Care  2007;11(1):R30.
Introduction
The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology in patients following secondary peritonitis and to determine whether the prevalence of PTSD-related symptoms differed between patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients admitted only to the surgical ward.
Method
A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients treated for secondary peritonitis was sent a postal survey containing a self-report questionnaire, namely the Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome 10-question inventory (PTSS-10). From a database of 278 patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis between 1994 and 2000, 131 patients were long-term survivors (follow-up period at least four years) and were eligible for inclusion in our study, conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Results
The response rate was 86%, yielding a cohort of 100 patients; 61% of these patients had been admitted to the ICU. PTSD-related symptoms were found in 24% (95% confidence interval 17% to 33%) of patients when a PTSS-10 score of 35 was chosen as the cutoff, whereas the prevalence of PTSD symptomology when borderline patients scoring 27 points or more were included was 38% (95% confidence interval 29% to 48%). In a multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, number of relaparotomies and length of hospital stay, the likelihood of ICU-admitted patients having PTSD symptomology was 4.3 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 16.5) than patients not admitted to the ICU, using a PTSS-10 score cutoff of 35 or greater. Older patients and males were less likely to report PTSD symptoms.
Conclusion
Nearly a quarter of patients receiving surgical treatment for secondary peritonitis developed PTSD symptoms. Patients admitted to the ICU were at significantly greater risk for having PTSD symptoms after adjusting for baseline differences, in particular age.
doi:10.1186/cc5710
PMCID: PMC2151910  PMID: 17319937

Results 1-6 (6)