Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor is very rare, although secondary mesenteric involvement is common, reported as 40% to 80%. And distant metastasis rate reported as 80% to 90%, when the size is larger than 2 cm. We present a case of very rare primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor showing benign character though large size. The patient visited St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea with increasing palpable abdominal mass. At laparotomy, a well encapsulated mass arising from the mesentery near the ligament of Treitz was found without any adjacent organ invasion or distant metastasis. The mass was measured as 8.2 × 7.3 cm and histopathologically benign character. At 11 months of follow up, the patient was recurrence free.
Carcinoid tumor; Mesentery; Neoplasms
This study was designed to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early stage colorectal cancer, which was confirmed to a carcinoma that invaded the submucosa after radical resection.
In total, 55 patients revealing submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma on pathology who underwent curative radical resection at the Department of Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea from January 2007 to September 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Tumor size, depth of submucosal invasion, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor budding, and microacinar structure were reviewed by a single pathologist. Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables were used for comparing the clinicopathological features between two groups (whether lymph node involvement existed or not). Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard error while statistical significance is accepted at P < 0.05.
The mean age of 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) was 61.2 ± 9.6 years (range, 43–83). Histologically, eight (14.5%) patients had metastatic lymph node. In the univariate analysis, tumor budding (P = 0.047) was the only factor that was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Also, the tumor budding had a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 60.5%, and a negative predictive value of 0.958 for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal cancer.
The tumor budding seems to have a high sensitivity (83.3%), acceptable specificity (60.5%), and a high negative predictive value (0.958). A close examination of pathologic finding including tumor budding should be performed in order to manage early CRC properly.
Lymph node metastasis; T1 colorectal cancer; Tumor budding
Inflammatory myofibroblastic (IMF) tumor is a rare solid tumor that often affects children. IMF tumors occur primarily in the lung, but the tumor may affect any organ system with protean manifestations. A 22-year-old woman was evaluated for palpable low abdominal mass that had been increasing in size since two months prior. Abdominal computed tomography showed a lobulated, heterogeneous contrast enhancing soft tissue mass, 6.5 × 5.7 cm in size in the ileal mesentery. At surgery, the mass originated from the greater omentum laying in the pelvic cavity and was completely excised without tumor spillage. Histologically, the mass was a spindle cell lesion with severe atypism and some mitosis. Immunohistochemistry for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 revealed that the lesion was an IMF tumor. Because of its local invasiveness and its tendency to recur, this tumor can be confused with a soft tissue sarcoma. Increasing physician awareness of this entity should facilitate recognition of its clinical characteristics and laboratory findings.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Spindle cell tumor; ALK-1; Omental mass
This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer.
From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve.
When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P = 0.042 and P = 0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P = 0.2036) and DFS ( P = 0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P = 0.013).
Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.
Laparoscopic surgery; Learning curve; Long-term outcome; Right sided colon cancer
Although there are more than a hundred techniques, including the transabdominal and the perineal approaches, for the repair of the rectal prolapsed, none of them is perfect. The best repair should be chosen not only to correct the prolapse but also to restore defecatory function and to improve fecal incontinence throughout the patient's lifetime. The aim of this retrospective review is to evaluate clinical outcomes of the Delorme's procedure for the management of the complete rectal prolapse.
A total of 19 patients (13 females and 6 males) with complete rectal prolapses were treated by using the Delorme's procedure in St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, from February 1997 to February 2007. Postoperative anal incontinence was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score.
All 19 patients had incontinence to liquid stool, solid stool, and/or flatus preoperatively. Three (15.8%) patients reported recurrence of the rectal prolapse (at 6, 18, 29 months, respectively, after the operation). Information on postoperative incontinence was available for 16 of the 19 patients. Twelve of the 16 patients (75%) reported improved continence (5 [31.3%] were improved and 7 [43.7%] completely recovered from incontinence) while 4 patients had unchanged incontinence symptoms. One (6.3%) patient who did not have constipation preoperatively developed constipation after the operation.
The Delorme's procedure is associated with a marked improvement in anal continence, relatively low recurrence rates, and low incidence of postoperative constipation. This allows us to conclude that this procedure still has its own role in selected patients.
Incontinence; Delorme's procedure; Rectal prolapse
Rectal burns caused by hot water enema have been reported only occasionally and the majority of them were treated in a conservative manner. Although intractable rectal stricture caused by rectal burn is rare, it may be treated by endoscopic intervention or surgery. A 52-year-old woman who had used various methods of enema to treat her chronic constipation eventually undertook a hot water enema herself. After that, anal pain and constipation became aggravated prompting her to visit our clinic. Although various nonoperative treatments including endoscopic stenting were performed, her obstructive symptom did not improve and endoscopic findings had not changed. Hence, we performed a laparoscopic proctosigmoidectomy and transanal coloanal anastomosis with ileal diversion to treat the disease, and as a result, her obstructive symptom improved well. Corrective surgery such as resection of involved segment with anastomosis may be beneficial in relieving obstructive symptoms of an intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema.
Hot water enema; Rectal burn; Rectal stricture; Constipation
Primary tumors of the retrorectal space in adults are very rare. Most of them are benign masses, but malignant masses are reported on occasion. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of retrorectal tumors.
The medical records of fifteen patients who underwent surgical resection of a retrorectal tumor from March 2002 to April 2010 in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively.
Out of 15 patients, thirteen were females and two males. About 1.7 patients were diagnosed with retrorectal tumor annually in our hospital. The incidence is one per 1,500 surgeries performed under general anesthesia. An anterior approach was performed in eight patients and a posterior approach with excision of the coccyx in five patients. Combined approach was performed in two patients. Four patients (three in abdominal approach and one in combined approach) underwent laparoscopic resection. The mean size of tumors was 6.2 ± 2.9 cm. Mature teratoma (four) and neurilemmoma (four) were the most common tumors. Except for one case of chondrosarcoma, fourteen tumors were confirmed to be of benign nature in histologic examination. Patients who underwent a transabdominal approach with laparoscopic surgery had no postoperative complication and had a tendency to experience earlier recovery than those with open surgery.
Surgical resection of a retrorectal tumor is recommended to relieve pressure symptoms and to confirm the diagnosis. A laparoscopic approach may offer excellent visualization of the deep structures in the retrorectal space, reduce surgical trauma, and be helpful for early postoperative recovery.
Retrorectal tumor; Anterior approach; Posterior approach; Combined approach; Laparoscopy
Bleeding lesions in the small bowel are a much more significant challenge in terms of detection and treatment than those of the stomach or the large bowel, and require extensive gastrointestinal evaluation before a diagnosis can be made. The authors report the case of an 81-year-old female patient who underwent small bowel segmental resection by single incisional laparoscopic approach for distal jejunalhemangioma, which caused severe anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a highly enhancing polypoid tumor in the distal ileum. During the single incisional laparoscopic exploration using a 2 cm sized skin incision, jejuno-jejunal intussusceptions and a jejunal tumor were noted. Single incisional laparoscopy was performed to assist the jejunal segmental resection. Pathologic reports confirmed the lesion to be a jejunalhemangioma. The authors report an unusual case of jejunalhemangioma caused by intussusception and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which was treated by single incisional laparoscopic surgery.
Jejunal hemangioma; Single incision; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
The diverticulum of the sigmoid colon is relatively common in the gastrointestinal tract, with the majority of cases being asymptomatic. A non-traumatic hemoperitoneum secondary to colonic diverticulum is very rare. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old woman with hemoperitoneum caused by the bleeding of the serosal vessel of the sigmoid colon diverticulum. The bleeding focus was identified and ligated, and the diverticulum was invaginated laparoscopically. No blood vessel malformation was detected.
hemoperitoneum; diverticulum; sigmoid colon; bleeding
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of nonoperative treatment for right-sided colonic diverticulitis.
One hundred fifty-eight patients with right-sided colonic diverticulitis were evaluated. Clinical history, physical and radiologic findings, and treatments were reviewed retrospectively. Also, additional episodes and treatment modalities were checked.
Our patients were classified according to treatment modality; 135 patients (85.4%) underwent conservative treatment, including antibiotics and bowel rest, and 23 patients (14.6%) underwent surgery. The mean follow-up length was 37.3 months, and 17 patients (17.5%) underwent recurrent right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Based on treatment modality, including surgery and antibiotics, no significant differences in the clinical features and the recurrence rates were noted between the two groups.
Conservative management with bowel rest and antibiotics could be considered as a safe and effective option for treating right-sided colonic diverticulitis. This treatment option for right-sided colonic diverticulitis, even if the disease is complicated, may be the treatment of choice.
Diverticulitis; Colonic diverticulitis; Drug therapy
Tumors of the small bowel are rare, accounting for about 3-6% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms, though they cover more than 90% of the intestinal surface. However, diagnosis and treatment are difficult and present an ongoing challenge for both gastrointestinal surgeons and gastroenterologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of small bowel tumors.
Between November 1994 and November 2007, 81 patients underwent treatments for primary tumors in the jejuno-ileal region at the Department of Surgery, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea. A retrospective review of the patients' characteristics and variable tumor factors was performed.
The mean age of the patients was 53.2 years with 48 men and 33 women. The most common symptom was abdominal pain (59.3%), followed by bleeding (22.2%) and an abdominal mass (6.2%). We found that the patients with ileal tumors complained mainly of abdominal pain (72.9%) whereas the patients with jejunal tumors presented with gastrointestinal bleeding (36.4%) (P = 0.048). Seventy-six of the 81 patients (93.8%) had malignant tumors, including 40 (49.4%) gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 26 (32.1%) lymphomas and 5 (6.2%) adenocarcinomas. No postoperative mortalities were observed. The overall 5-year survival rate of the patients with malignant small bowel tumors was 31.8%.
Because the clinical features of a primary tumor of the small bowel are obscure and its diagnosis is difficult, maintaining a high degree of suspicion and recognizing the possibility of a primary small bowel tumor are important.
Small intestine; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Lymphoma
The lung is the second most common site of metastasis from colorectal cancer. Of all patients who undergo a curative resection for colorectal cancer, 10% to 15% will develop lung metastasis. As a hepatic resection of colorectal liver metastases results in improved survival, many reports have suggested that a pulmonary resection of a colorectal lung metastasis would also improve survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the postoperative outcomes of and the prognostic factors for a surgical resection of a lung metastasis.
Between August 1997 and March 2006, 27 patients underwent surgical resections for colorectal lung metastases at Seoul St. Mary's hospital. A retrospective review of patients' characteristics and various tumor factors was performed.
The mean interval between colorectal resection and lung metastasis was 24.0 ± 15.1 months. The overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 76.5% and 22.2%, respectively. The mean follow-up after pulmonary resection was 39.5 ± 21.6 months (range, 3.3 to 115 months). Except for the existence of hilar-lymph-node metastasis (P < 0.001), no risk factors that we studied were statistically significant. Two patients had hilar-lymph-node metastasis. They survived for only for 3.3- and 11.6-months, respectively.
In our study, we found that a pulmonary resection for metastases from colorectal cancer may improve survival in selected patients.
Colorectal neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Lung