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1.  Predicting Virtual World User Population Fluctuations with Deep Learning 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(12):e0167153.
This paper proposes a system for predicting increases in virtual world user actions. The virtual world user population is a very important aspect of these worlds; however, methods for predicting fluctuations in these populations have not been well documented. Therefore, we attempt to predict changes in virtual world user populations with deep learning, using easily accessible online data, including formal datasets from Google Trends, Wikipedia, and online communities, as well as informal datasets collected from online forums. We use the proposed system to analyze the user population of EVE Online, one of the largest virtual worlds.
PMCID: PMC5147861  PMID: 27936009
2.  Reduced port laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is safe and feasible in terms of short-term outcomes: comparative study with conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery 
Laparoscopic surgery was previously accepted as an alternative surgical option in treatment for colorectal cancer. Nowadays, single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is introduced as a method to maximize advantages of minimally invasive surgery. However, SPLS has several limitations compared to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery (CMLS). To overcome those limitations of SPLS, reduced port laparoscopic surgery (RPLS) was introduced. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term outcomes of RPLS.
Patients who underwent CMLS and RPLS of colon cancer between August 2011 and December 2013 were included in this study. Short-term clinical and pathological outcome were compared between the 2 groups.
Thirty-two patients underwent RPLS and 217 patients underwent CMLS. Shorter operation time, less blood loss, and faster bowel movement were shown in RPLS group in this study. In terms of postoperative pain, numeric rating scale (NRS) of RPLS was lower than that of CMLS. Significant differences were shown in terms of tumor size, harvested lymph node, perineural invasion, and pathological stage. No significant differences were confirmed in terms of other surgical outcomes.
In this study, RPLS was technically feasible and safe. Especially in terms of postoperative pain, RPLS was comparable to CMLS. RPLS may be a feasible alternative option in selected patients with colon cancer.
PMCID: PMC5064230  PMID: 27757397
Colon cancer; Laparoscopic surgery; Minimally invasive surgery
3.  Predicting Fluctuations in Cryptocurrency Transactions Based on User Comments and Replies 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(8):e0161197.
This paper proposes a method to predict fluctuations in the prices of cryptocurrencies, which are increasingly used for online transactions worldwide. Little research has been conducted on predicting fluctuations in the price and number of transactions of a variety of cryptocurrencies. Moreover, the few methods proposed to predict fluctuation in currency prices are inefficient because they fail to take into account the differences in attributes between real currencies and cryptocurrencies. This paper analyzes user comments in online cryptocurrency communities to predict fluctuations in the prices of cryptocurrencies and the number of transactions. By focusing on three cryptocurrencies, each with a large market size and user base, this paper attempts to predict such fluctuations by using a simple and efficient method.
PMCID: PMC4988639  PMID: 27533113
4.  Predictive microRNAs for lymph node metastasis in endoscopically resectable submucosal colorectal cancer 
Oncotarget  2016;7(22):32902-32915.
Accurate prediction of regional lymph node metastasis (LNM) in endoscopically resected T1-stage colorectal cancers (CRCs) can reduce unnecessary surgeries. To identify miRNA markers that can predict LNM in T1-stage CRCs, the study was conducted in two phases; (I) miRNA classifier construction by miRNA-array and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) using 36 T1-stage CRC samples; (II) miRNA classifier validation in an independent set of 20 T1-stage CRC samples. The expression of potential downstream target genes of miRNAs was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In the discovery analysis by miRNA microarray, expression of 66 miRNAs were significantly different between LNM-positive and negative CRCs. After qRT-PCR validation, 11 miRNAs were consistently significant in the combined classifier construction set. Among them, miR-342-3p was the most significant one (P=4.3×10−4). Through logistic regression analysis, we developed a three-miRNA classifier (miR-342-3p, miR-361-3p, and miR-3621) for predicting LNM in T1-stage CRCs, yielding the area under the curve of 0.947 (94% sensitivity, 85% specificity and 89% accuracy). The discriminative ability of this system was consistently reliable in the independent validation set (83% sensitivity, 64% specificity and 70% of accuracy). Of the potential downstream targets of the three-miRNAs, expressions of E2F1, RAP2B, and AKT1 were significantly associated with LNM. In conclusion, this classifier can predict LNM more accurately than conventional pathologic criteria and our study results may be helpful to avoid unnecessary bowel surgery after endoscopic resection in early CRC.
PMCID: PMC5078061  PMID: 27096956
endoscopically resectable colorectal cancer; microRNA; lymph node metastasis
5.  Multimodal Assessments Are Needed for Restaging after Neoadjunvant Chemoradiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer Patients 
Restaging after neoadjuvant treatment is done for planning the surgical approach and, increasingly, to determine whether additional therapy or resection can be avoided for selected patients.
Materials and Methods
Local restaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (nCRT) was performed in 270 patients with locally advanced (cT3or4 or N+) rectal cancer. Abdomen and pelvic computed tomography (APCT) was used in all 270 patients, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in 121 patients, and rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 65 patients. Findings according to imaging modalities were correlated with pathologic stage using Cohen’s kappa (κ) to test agreement and intra-class correlation coefficient α to test reliability.
Accuracy for prediction of ypT stage according to three imaging modalities was 45.2% (κ=0.136, α=0.380) in APCT, 49.2% (κ=0.259, α=0.514) in rectal MRI, and 57.9% (κ=0.266, α=0.520) in TRUS. Accuracy for prediction of ypN stage was 66.0% (κ=0.274, α=0.441) in APCT, 71.8% (κ=0.401, α=0.549) in rectal MRI, and 66.1% (κ=0.147, α=0.272) in TRUS. Of 270 patients, 37 (13.7%) were diagnosed as pathologic complete responder after nCRT. Rectal MRI for restaging did not predict complete response. On the other hand, TRUS did predict three complete responders (κ=0.238, α=0.401).
APCT, rectal MRI, and TRUS are unreliable in restaging rectal cancer after nCRT. We think that multimodal assessment with rectal MRI and TRUS may be the best option for local restaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after nCRT.
PMCID: PMC4843748  PMID: 26323642
Rectal neoplasms; Neoadjuvant therapy; Neoplasm staging
6.  Novel Methods of Lymph Node Evaluation for Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest 
Lymph node metastasis is an important factor for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, approximately 60% of patients do not receive adequate lymph node evaluation (less than 12 lymph nodes). In this study, we identified a more effective tool for predicting the prognosis of patients who received inadequate lymph node evaluation.
Materials and Methods
The number of metastatic lymph nodes, total number of lymph nodes examined, number of negative metastatic lymph nodes (NL), lymph node ratio (LR), and the number of apical lymph nodes (APL) were examined, and the prognostic impact of these parameters was examined in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January 2004 to December 2011. In total, 806 people were analyzed retrospectively.
In comparison of different lymph node analysis methods for rectal cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, the LR showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and the APL predicted a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS). In the case of colon cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, LR predicted a significant difference in DFS and OS, and the APL predicted a significant difference in DFS.
If patients did not receive adequate lymph node evaluation, the LR and NL were useful parameters to complement N stage for predicting OS in colon cancer, whereas LR was complementary for rectal cancer. The APL could be used for prediction of DFS in all patients.
PMCID: PMC4720064  PMID: 25943323
Colorectal neoplasms; Prognosis; Lymph nodes; Negative lymph nodes; Lymph node ratio
7.  Comparative study between transanal tube and loop ileostomy in low anterior resection for mid rectal cancer: a retrospective single center trial 
To investigate the efficacy and safety of the transanal tube (TAT) in preventing anastomotic leak (AL) in rectal cancer surgery.
Clinical data of the patients who underwent curative surgery for mid rectal cancer from February 2010 to February 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Rectal cancers arising 5 to 10 cm above the anal verge were selected. Patients were divided into the ileostomy, TAT, or no-protection groups. Postoperative complications including AL and postoperative course were compared.
We included 137 patients: 67, 35, and 35 patients were included in the ileostomy, TAT, and no-protection groups, respectively. Operation time was longer in the ileostomy group (P = 0.029), and more estimated blood loss was observed (P = 0.018). AL occurred in 5 patients (7.5%) in the ileostomy group, 1 patients (2.9%) in the TAT group, and 6 patients (17.1%) in the no-protection group (P = 0.125). Patients in the ileostomy group resumed diet more than 1 day earlier than those in the other groups (P = 0.000). Patients in the no-protection group had about 1 or 2 days longer postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.048). The ileostomy group showed higher late complication rates than the other groups as complications associated with the stoma itself or repair operation developed (P = 0.019).
For mid rectal cancer surgery, the TAT supports anastomotic site protection and diverts ileostomy-related complications. Further large scale randomized controlled studies are needed to gain more evidence and expand the range of TAT usage.
PMCID: PMC4422879  PMID: 25960989
Surgical stomas; Drainage; Ileostomy; Anastomotic leak; Rectal neoplasms
8.  Occurrence and Prognosis of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Colorectal Cancer Surgery Patients 
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to other surgical diseases, but the relationship between VTE and CRC in Asian patients remains poorly understood. The present study examined the incidence of symptomatic VTE in Korean patients who underwent surgery for CRC. We also identified risk factors, incidence and survival rate for VTE in these patients
Materials and Methods:
The patients were identified from the CRC database treated from January 2011 to December 2012 in a single institution. These patients were classified into VTE and non-VTE groups, their demographic features were compared, and the factors which had significant effects on VTE and mortality between the two groups were analyzed.
We analyzed retrospectively a total of 840 patients and the incidence of VTE was 3.7% (31 patients) during the follow-up period (mean, 17.2 months). Histologic subtype (mucinous adenocarcinoma) and previous history of VTE affected the incidence of VTE on multivariate analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in survival rate between the VTE and non-VTE group, but VTE wasn’t the factor affecting survival rate on multivariate analysis. Comparing differences in survival rate for each pathologic stage, there was only a significant difference in stage II patients.
Among CRC patients after surgery, the incidence of VTE was approximately 3% within 1 year and development of VTE wasn’t a significant risk factor for death in our study but these findings are not conclusive due to our small sample size.
PMCID: PMC4480307  PMID: 26217616
Venous thromboembolism; Colorectal cancer; Survival rate
9.  The nutritional risk is a independent factor for postoperative morbidity in surgery for colorectal cancer 
The authors evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition and its effect on the postoperative morbidity of patients after surgery for colorectal cancer.
Three hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled prospectively. Nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002) score was calculated through interview with patient on admission. Clinical characteristics, tumor status and surgical procedure were recorded.
The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk was 28.1 per cent according to the NRS 2002. The rate of postoperative complication was 27%. There was a significant difference in postoperative complication rates between patients at nutritional risk and those not at risk (37.4% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.006). Nutritional risk was identified as an independent predictor of postoperative complications (odds ratio, 3.05; P = 0.045). Nutritional risk increased the rate of anastomotic leakage (P = 0.027) and wound infection (P = 0.01).
NRS may be a prognostic factor for postoperative complication after surgery for colorectal cancer. A large scaled prospective study is needed to confirm whether supplementing nutritional deficits reduces postoperative complication rates.
PMCID: PMC3996723  PMID: 24783180
Colorectal neoplasms; Complication; Malnutrition; Morbidity
10.  Niti CAR 27 Versus a Conventional End-to-End Anastomosis Stapler in a Laparoscopic Anterior Resection for Sigmoid Colon Cancer 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(2):77-82.
The Niti CAR 27 (ColonRing) uses compression to create an anastomosis. This study aimed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of the anastomosis created with the Niti CAR 27 in a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer.
In a single-center study, 157 consecutive patients who received an operation between March 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively assessed. The Niti CAR 27 (CAR group, 63 patients) colorectal anastomoses were compared with the conventional double-stapled (CDS group, 94 patients) colorectal anastomoses. Intraoperative, immediate postoperative and 6-month follow-up data were recorded.
There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, gender, tumor location and other clinical characteristics. One patient (1.6%) in the CAR group and 2 patients (2.1%) in the CDS group experienced complications of anastomotic leakage (P = 0.647). These three patients underwent a diverting loop ileostomy. There were 2 cases (2.1%) of bleeding at the anastomosis site in the CDS group. All patients underwent a follow-up colonoscopy (median, 6 months). One patient in the CAR group experienced anastomotic stricture (1.6% vs. 0%; P = 0.401). This complication was solved by using balloon dilatation.
Anastomosis using the Niti CAR 27 device in a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer is safe and feasible. Its use is equivalent to that of the conventional double-stapler.
PMCID: PMC4022756  PMID: 24851217
Anastomotic leak; Colorectal; Compression; Niti
11.  How Much Colonic Redundancy Could Be Obtained by Splenic Flexure Mobilization in Laparoscopic Anterior or Low Anterior Resection? 
Background and Objectives: Splenic flexure mobilization (SFM) is performed to ensure a tension free anastomosis with an adequate resection margin in laparoscopic anterior resection (AR) or low anterior resection (LAR). This retrospective study was performed to determine the amount of colonic redundancy that can be expected by SFM.
Methods: Retrospective review of medical record for a total of 203 patients who underwent SFM during laparoscopic AR or LAR for the treatment of sigmoid colon or rectal cancer was performed.
Results: The obtained redundancy of the colon by SFM was 27.81 ± 7.29 cm from the sacral promontory. The redundancy of the colon by SFM with high ligation of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) (29.54 ± 7.17 cm from the sacral promontory) was greater than that with low ligation of the IMV (24.94 ± 6.07 cm from the sacral promontory, P < 0.0001). It took about 9.82% of the total operation time to perform SFM. There was no intraoperative complication during SFM.
Conclusions: SFM during laparoscopic AR or LAR is a safe and feasible option. Based on the result of this study, one can gain about 27.81 cm redundancy of the colon by SFM.
PMCID: PMC4081306  PMID: 25013364
laparoscopic anterior resection; laparoscopic low anterior resection; splenic flexure mobilization
12.  Comparison between preoperative and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: an institutional analysis 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(3):155-161.
To evaluate the treatment outcomes of preoperative versus postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on locally advanced rectal cancer.
Materials and Methods
Medical data of 114 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with CRT preoperatively (54 patients) or postoperatively (60 patients) from June 2003 to April 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or a precursor of 5-FU-based concurrent CRT (median, 50.4 Gy) and total mesorectal excision were conducted for all patients. The median follow-up duration was 43 months (range, 16 to 118 months). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary end points were overall survival (OS), locoregional control, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate.
The 5-year DFS rate was 72.1% and 48.6% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT group, respectively (p = 0.05, the univariate analysis; p = 0.10, the multivariate analysis). The 5-year OS rate was not significantly different between the groups (76.2% vs. 69.0%, p = 0.23). The 5-year locoregional control rate was 85.2% and 84.7% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT groups (p = 0.98). The sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor showed significant difference between both groups (58.1% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.02). Pathologic tumor and nodal down-classification occurred after the preoperative CRT (53.7% and 77.8%, both p < 0.001). Acute and chronic toxicities were not significantly different between both groups (p = 0.10 and p = 0.62, respectively).
The results confirm that preoperative CRT can be advantageous for improving down-classification rate and the sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor in rectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3797275  PMID: 24137561
Rectal cancer; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
13.  Short–term effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy on anorectal function in rectal cancer patients: a pilot study 
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by curative surgery has gained acceptance as the therapy of choice in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, deterioration of anorectal function after long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy combined with surgery for rectal cancer is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and clinical change of anorectal function after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.
We analyzed 30 patients on whom preoperative anorectal manometry data were available both before and after chemoradiation from October 2010 to September 2011. All patients underwent long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. We compared manometric parameters between before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
Of 30 patients, 20 were males and 10 females. The mean age was 64.9 ± 9.9 years (range, 48-82). Before nCRT, the rectal compliance was higher in patients with ulceroinfiltrative type (P = 0.035) and greater involvement of luminal circumference (P = 0.017). However, there was the tendency of increased rectal sensory threshold for desire to defecate when the patient had decreased circumferential ratio of the tumor (P = 0.099), down-graded T stage (P = 0.016), or reduced tumor volume (P = 0.063) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy did not significantly impair overall sphincter function before radical operation. The relationship between tumor response of chemoradiation and sensory threshold for desire to defecate may suggest that neoadjuvant chemoradiation may be helpful for defecatory function as well as local disease control, at least in the short-term period after the radiation in locally advanced rectal cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3766044  PMID: 23961877
Anorectal function; Neoadjuvant chemoradiation; Manometry; Rectal cancer
14.  Adenocarcinoma arising from Meckel's diverticulum in the ileum with malrotation of the midgut 
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a true congenital diverticulum that is remnant by incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, with an estimated prevalence of 2% (0.3% to 3% in autopsy studies). About 90% of MD occurs within 100 cm of the ileocecal valve. A primary malignant tumor arising within an MD is extremely uncommon. Malignancies are reported to account for only 0.5% to 3.2% of the complications. Carcinoids are the most common malignant tumors occurring in MD. Adenocarcinomas are extremely uncommon and very poor prognosis has been reported. We report a case of radiographically diagnosed chronic inflammatory mass caused by adenocarcinoma arising from MD in the ileum with malrotation of the midgut incidentally discovered at exploration.
PMCID: PMC3671006  PMID: 23741695
Meckel diverticulum; Adenocarcinoma; Intestinal malrotation
15.  A comparison of the periumbilical incision and the intraumbilical incision in laparoscopic appendectomy 
The intraumbilical incision is being used more frequently, with increasing cases of single incision laparoscopic surgery. Since the umbilicus is deeper than the surrounding wall, it has abundant bacteria. No study has compared the adverse outcomes of periumbilical and intraumbilical incisions. We analyzed the wound complication rates of perforated appendicitis patients according to the types of umbilical incision.
A retrospective review was done of 280 patients with perforated appendicitis. One hundred fifty nine patients were treated with the intraumbilical incision, and 121 patients were treated with the periumbilical incision. We compared the perioperative outcomes according to each laparoscopic incision.
There was no difference in operation time, postoperative hospital stay and analgesic requirement between the two groups. One case in the intraumbilical group (0.6%) and three cases in the periumbilical group (2.5%) developed wound infections. The umbilical complication rate showed no difference.
The wound complication rate of intraumbilical and periumbilical incisions are not different. Although this retrospective study has inherent limitations, the intraumbilical incision seems to be a safe and feasible alternative for the periumbilical incision that can be easier to perform, with better cosmetic results.
PMCID: PMC3514478  PMID: 23230554
Intraumbilical; Laparoscopic technique; Appendectomy
16.  The role of postoperative pelvic radiation in stage IV rectal cancer after resection of primary tumor 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):205-212.
To evaluate the effect of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor with or without metastasectomy.
Materials and Methods
Medical records of 112 patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-nine patients received synchronous or staged metastasectomy whereas fifty-three patients did not. Twenty-six patients received pelvic radiotherapy.
Median overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was 27, 70, and 11 months, respectively. Pathologic T (pT), N (pN) classification and complete metastasectomy were statistically significant factors in OS (p = 0.040, 0.020, and 0.002, respectively). RT did not improve OS or LRFS. There were no significant factors in LRFS. pT and pN classification were also significant prognostic factors in PFS (p = 0.010 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, RT improved LRFS in patients with pT4 disease (p = 0.026). The locoregional failure rate of the RT group and the non-RT group were 23.1% and 33.7%, showing no difference in the failure pattern of both groups (p = 0.260).
Postoperative pelvic RT did not improve LRFS of all metastatic rectal cancer patients; however, it can be recommended to patients with pT4 disease. A complete resection of metastatic masses should be performed if possible.
PMCID: PMC3546289  PMID: 23346540
Rectal neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Radiotherapy; Local neoplasm recurrence
17.  Tumor budding as a risk factor of lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal carcinoma: a retrospective study 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:16.
This study was designed to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early stage colorectal cancer, which was confirmed to a carcinoma that invaded the submucosa after radical resection.
In total, 55 patients revealing submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma on pathology who underwent curative radical resection at the Department of Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea from January 2007 to September 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Tumor size, depth of submucosal invasion, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor budding, and microacinar structure were reviewed by a single pathologist. Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables were used for comparing the clinicopathological features between two groups (whether lymph node involvement existed or not). Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard error while statistical significance is accepted at P < 0.05.
The mean age of 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) was 61.2 ± 9.6 years (range, 43–83). Histologically, eight (14.5%) patients had metastatic lymph node. In the univariate analysis, tumor budding (P = 0.047) was the only factor that was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Also, the tumor budding had a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 60.5%, and a negative predictive value of 0.958 for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal cancer.
The tumor budding seems to have a high sensitivity (83.3%), acceptable specificity (60.5%), and a high negative predictive value (0.958). A close examination of pathologic finding including tumor budding should be performed in order to manage early CRC properly.
PMCID: PMC3469500  PMID: 22866826
Lymph node metastasis; T1 colorectal cancer; Tumor budding
18.  The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study 
This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer.
From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve.
When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P = 0.042 and P = 0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P = 0.2036) and DFS ( P = 0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P = 0.013).
Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.
PMCID: PMC3449202  PMID: 22594580
Laparoscopic surgery; Learning curve; Long-term outcome; Right sided colon cancer
19.  Delorme's Procedure for Complete Rectal Prolapse: Does It Still Have It's Own Role? 
Although there are more than a hundred techniques, including the transabdominal and the perineal approaches, for the repair of the rectal prolapsed, none of them is perfect. The best repair should be chosen not only to correct the prolapse but also to restore defecatory function and to improve fecal incontinence throughout the patient's lifetime. The aim of this retrospective review is to evaluate clinical outcomes of the Delorme's procedure for the management of the complete rectal prolapse.
A total of 19 patients (13 females and 6 males) with complete rectal prolapses were treated by using the Delorme's procedure in St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, from February 1997 to February 2007. Postoperative anal incontinence was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score.
All 19 patients had incontinence to liquid stool, solid stool, and/or flatus preoperatively. Three (15.8%) patients reported recurrence of the rectal prolapse (at 6, 18, 29 months, respectively, after the operation). Information on postoperative incontinence was available for 16 of the 19 patients. Twelve of the 16 patients (75%) reported improved continence (5 [31.3%] were improved and 7 [43.7%] completely recovered from incontinence) while 4 patients had unchanged incontinence symptoms. One (6.3%) patient who did not have constipation preoperatively developed constipation after the operation.
The Delorme's procedure is associated with a marked improvement in anal continence, relatively low recurrence rates, and low incidence of postoperative constipation. This allows us to conclude that this procedure still has its own role in selected patients.
PMCID: PMC3296936  PMID: 22413077
Incontinence; Delorme's procedure; Rectal prolapse
20.  Clinicopathological features of retrorectal tumors in adults: 9 years of experience in a single institution 
Primary tumors of the retrorectal space in adults are very rare. Most of them are benign masses, but malignant masses are reported on occasion. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of retrorectal tumors.
The medical records of fifteen patients who underwent surgical resection of a retrorectal tumor from March 2002 to April 2010 in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively.
Out of 15 patients, thirteen were females and two males. About 1.7 patients were diagnosed with retrorectal tumor annually in our hospital. The incidence is one per 1,500 surgeries performed under general anesthesia. An anterior approach was performed in eight patients and a posterior approach with excision of the coccyx in five patients. Combined approach was performed in two patients. Four patients (three in abdominal approach and one in combined approach) underwent laparoscopic resection. The mean size of tumors was 6.2 ± 2.9 cm. Mature teratoma (four) and neurilemmoma (four) were the most common tumors. Except for one case of chondrosarcoma, fourteen tumors were confirmed to be of benign nature in histologic examination. Patients who underwent a transabdominal approach with laparoscopic surgery had no postoperative complication and had a tendency to experience earlier recovery than those with open surgery.
Surgical resection of a retrorectal tumor is recommended to relieve pressure symptoms and to confirm the diagnosis. A laparoscopic approach may offer excellent visualization of the deep structures in the retrorectal space, reduce surgical trauma, and be helpful for early postoperative recovery.
PMCID: PMC3204566  PMID: 22066111
Retrorectal tumor; Anterior approach; Posterior approach; Combined approach; Laparoscopy
21.  Hemorrhage from a jejunal polypoid hemangioma: single incisional laparoscopic approach 
Bleeding lesions in the small bowel are a much more significant challenge in terms of detection and treatment than those of the stomach or the large bowel, and require extensive gastrointestinal evaluation before a diagnosis can be made. The authors report the case of an 81-year-old female patient who underwent small bowel segmental resection by single incisional laparoscopic approach for distal jejunalhemangioma, which caused severe anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a highly enhancing polypoid tumor in the distal ileum. During the single incisional laparoscopic exploration using a 2 cm sized skin incision, jejuno-jejunal intussusceptions and a jejunal tumor were noted. Single incisional laparoscopy was performed to assist the jejunal segmental resection. Pathologic reports confirmed the lesion to be a jejunalhemangioma. The authors report an unusual case of jejunalhemangioma caused by intussusception and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which was treated by single incisional laparoscopic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3204695  PMID: 22066061
Jejunal hemangioma; Single incision; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
22.  Treatment of Right Colonic Diverticulitis: The Role of Nonoperative Treatment 
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of nonoperative treatment for right-sided colonic diverticulitis.
One hundred fifty-eight patients with right-sided colonic diverticulitis were evaluated. Clinical history, physical and radiologic findings, and treatments were reviewed retrospectively. Also, additional episodes and treatment modalities were checked.
Our patients were classified according to treatment modality; 135 patients (85.4%) underwent conservative treatment, including antibiotics and bowel rest, and 23 patients (14.6%) underwent surgery. The mean follow-up length was 37.3 months, and 17 patients (17.5%) underwent recurrent right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Based on treatment modality, including surgery and antibiotics, no significant differences in the clinical features and the recurrence rates were noted between the two groups.
Conservative management with bowel rest and antibiotics could be considered as a safe and effective option for treating right-sided colonic diverticulitis. This treatment option for right-sided colonic diverticulitis, even if the disease is complicated, may be the treatment of choice.
PMCID: PMC3017975  PMID: 21221240
Diverticulitis; Colonic diverticulitis; Drug therapy
23.  Oxaliplatin/5-FU without Leucovorin Chemotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
Fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin combination therapy have shown synergistic or additive effect against advanced colorectal cancer, but the frequency of mucositis and diarrhea is increased. Most previous studies have used high dose leucovorin (300~500 mg/m2). However, some studies of oxaliplatin and 5-FU with low-dose or high-dose leucovorin in Korea have shown similar response rates. Therefore, we studied the necessity of leucovorin and evaluated the objective tumor response rates and toxicities of a regimen of oxaliplatin and 5-FU without leucovorin every 2 weeks in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-four patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled between January 2002 and March 2003. Patients received 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1, a bolus 5-FU 400 mg/m2 on day 1 and a continuous 5-FU infusion at 600 mg/m2/ 22 hours days 1 and 2, every 2 weeks.
Of the 24 patients treated, 17 patients received previous 5FU with leucovorin and/or other chemotherapy. Three patients could not be evaluated. Five partial responses were observed with overall response rate of 21% (n=24). Of the previous chemotherapy group (n=17), 4 partial responses were observed with response rate of 24%. Median overall survival was 18 months (range 4~32 months) and median progression free survival was 4 months (range 2~6 months). This regimen was well tolerated and only 1 grade 3 anemia was observed.
Oxaliplatin/5-FU combination therapy without leucovorin achieved a relatively high response rate even in patients resistant to the previous 5-FU chemotherapy, and toxicity was minimal.
PMCID: PMC2785915  PMID: 19956516
Oxaliplatin; 5-Flurouracil; Colorectal neoplasms
24.  Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson's Hemangioma) of the Liver: A New Hepatic Lesion 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(2):305-308.
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's hemangioma) is a disease characterized by exuberant endothelial proliferation within the lumen of medium-sized veins. In 1923, Masson regarded this disease as a neoplasm inducing endothelial proliferation, however, now it is considered to be a reactive vascular proliferation following traumatic vascular stasis. The lesion has a propensity to occur in the head, neck, fingers, and trunk. Occurrence within the abdominal cavity is known to be very rare, and especially in the liver, there has been no reported case up to date. The authors have experienced intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the liver in a 69-yr-old woman, and report the case with a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC2822318  PMID: 15082910
Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia; Hemangioma; Liver

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