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1.  The nutritional risk is a independent factor for postoperative morbidity in surgery for colorectal cancer 
The authors evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition and its effect on the postoperative morbidity of patients after surgery for colorectal cancer.
Three hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled prospectively. Nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002) score was calculated through interview with patient on admission. Clinical characteristics, tumor status and surgical procedure were recorded.
The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk was 28.1 per cent according to the NRS 2002. The rate of postoperative complication was 27%. There was a significant difference in postoperative complication rates between patients at nutritional risk and those not at risk (37.4% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.006). Nutritional risk was identified as an independent predictor of postoperative complications (odds ratio, 3.05; P = 0.045). Nutritional risk increased the rate of anastomotic leakage (P = 0.027) and wound infection (P = 0.01).
NRS may be a prognostic factor for postoperative complication after surgery for colorectal cancer. A large scaled prospective study is needed to confirm whether supplementing nutritional deficits reduces postoperative complication rates.
PMCID: PMC3996723  PMID: 24783180
Colorectal neoplasms; Complication; Malnutrition; Morbidity
2.  Niti CAR 27 Versus a Conventional End-to-End Anastomosis Stapler in a Laparoscopic Anterior Resection for Sigmoid Colon Cancer 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(2):77-82.
The Niti CAR 27 (ColonRing) uses compression to create an anastomosis. This study aimed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of the anastomosis created with the Niti CAR 27 in a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer.
In a single-center study, 157 consecutive patients who received an operation between March 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively assessed. The Niti CAR 27 (CAR group, 63 patients) colorectal anastomoses were compared with the conventional double-stapled (CDS group, 94 patients) colorectal anastomoses. Intraoperative, immediate postoperative and 6-month follow-up data were recorded.
There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, gender, tumor location and other clinical characteristics. One patient (1.6%) in the CAR group and 2 patients (2.1%) in the CDS group experienced complications of anastomotic leakage (P = 0.647). These three patients underwent a diverting loop ileostomy. There were 2 cases (2.1%) of bleeding at the anastomosis site in the CDS group. All patients underwent a follow-up colonoscopy (median, 6 months). One patient in the CAR group experienced anastomotic stricture (1.6% vs. 0%; P = 0.401). This complication was solved by using balloon dilatation.
Anastomosis using the Niti CAR 27 device in a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer is safe and feasible. Its use is equivalent to that of the conventional double-stapler.
PMCID: PMC4022756  PMID: 24851217
Anastomotic leak; Colorectal; Compression; Niti
3.  How Much Colonic Redundancy Could Be Obtained by Splenic Flexure Mobilization in Laparoscopic Anterior or Low Anterior Resection? 
Background and Objectives: Splenic flexure mobilization (SFM) is performed to ensure a tension free anastomosis with an adequate resection margin in laparoscopic anterior resection (AR) or low anterior resection (LAR). This retrospective study was performed to determine the amount of colonic redundancy that can be expected by SFM.
Methods: Retrospective review of medical record for a total of 203 patients who underwent SFM during laparoscopic AR or LAR for the treatment of sigmoid colon or rectal cancer was performed.
Results: The obtained redundancy of the colon by SFM was 27.81 ± 7.29 cm from the sacral promontory. The redundancy of the colon by SFM with high ligation of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) (29.54 ± 7.17 cm from the sacral promontory) was greater than that with low ligation of the IMV (24.94 ± 6.07 cm from the sacral promontory, P < 0.0001). It took about 9.82% of the total operation time to perform SFM. There was no intraoperative complication during SFM.
Conclusions: SFM during laparoscopic AR or LAR is a safe and feasible option. Based on the result of this study, one can gain about 27.81 cm redundancy of the colon by SFM.
PMCID: PMC4081306  PMID: 25013364
laparoscopic anterior resection; laparoscopic low anterior resection; splenic flexure mobilization
4.  Comparison between preoperative and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: an institutional analysis 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(3):155-161.
To evaluate the treatment outcomes of preoperative versus postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on locally advanced rectal cancer.
Materials and Methods
Medical data of 114 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with CRT preoperatively (54 patients) or postoperatively (60 patients) from June 2003 to April 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or a precursor of 5-FU-based concurrent CRT (median, 50.4 Gy) and total mesorectal excision were conducted for all patients. The median follow-up duration was 43 months (range, 16 to 118 months). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary end points were overall survival (OS), locoregional control, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate.
The 5-year DFS rate was 72.1% and 48.6% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT group, respectively (p = 0.05, the univariate analysis; p = 0.10, the multivariate analysis). The 5-year OS rate was not significantly different between the groups (76.2% vs. 69.0%, p = 0.23). The 5-year locoregional control rate was 85.2% and 84.7% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT groups (p = 0.98). The sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor showed significant difference between both groups (58.1% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.02). Pathologic tumor and nodal down-classification occurred after the preoperative CRT (53.7% and 77.8%, both p < 0.001). Acute and chronic toxicities were not significantly different between both groups (p = 0.10 and p = 0.62, respectively).
The results confirm that preoperative CRT can be advantageous for improving down-classification rate and the sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor in rectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3797275  PMID: 24137561
Rectal cancer; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
5.  Short–term effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy on anorectal function in rectal cancer patients: a pilot study 
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by curative surgery has gained acceptance as the therapy of choice in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, deterioration of anorectal function after long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy combined with surgery for rectal cancer is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and clinical change of anorectal function after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.
We analyzed 30 patients on whom preoperative anorectal manometry data were available both before and after chemoradiation from October 2010 to September 2011. All patients underwent long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. We compared manometric parameters between before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
Of 30 patients, 20 were males and 10 females. The mean age was 64.9 ± 9.9 years (range, 48-82). Before nCRT, the rectal compliance was higher in patients with ulceroinfiltrative type (P = 0.035) and greater involvement of luminal circumference (P = 0.017). However, there was the tendency of increased rectal sensory threshold for desire to defecate when the patient had decreased circumferential ratio of the tumor (P = 0.099), down-graded T stage (P = 0.016), or reduced tumor volume (P = 0.063) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy did not significantly impair overall sphincter function before radical operation. The relationship between tumor response of chemoradiation and sensory threshold for desire to defecate may suggest that neoadjuvant chemoradiation may be helpful for defecatory function as well as local disease control, at least in the short-term period after the radiation in locally advanced rectal cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3766044  PMID: 23961877
Anorectal function; Neoadjuvant chemoradiation; Manometry; Rectal cancer
6.  Adenocarcinoma arising from Meckel's diverticulum in the ileum with malrotation of the midgut 
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a true congenital diverticulum that is remnant by incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, with an estimated prevalence of 2% (0.3% to 3% in autopsy studies). About 90% of MD occurs within 100 cm of the ileocecal valve. A primary malignant tumor arising within an MD is extremely uncommon. Malignancies are reported to account for only 0.5% to 3.2% of the complications. Carcinoids are the most common malignant tumors occurring in MD. Adenocarcinomas are extremely uncommon and very poor prognosis has been reported. We report a case of radiographically diagnosed chronic inflammatory mass caused by adenocarcinoma arising from MD in the ileum with malrotation of the midgut incidentally discovered at exploration.
PMCID: PMC3671006  PMID: 23741695
Meckel diverticulum; Adenocarcinoma; Intestinal malrotation
7.  A comparison of the periumbilical incision and the intraumbilical incision in laparoscopic appendectomy 
The intraumbilical incision is being used more frequently, with increasing cases of single incision laparoscopic surgery. Since the umbilicus is deeper than the surrounding wall, it has abundant bacteria. No study has compared the adverse outcomes of periumbilical and intraumbilical incisions. We analyzed the wound complication rates of perforated appendicitis patients according to the types of umbilical incision.
A retrospective review was done of 280 patients with perforated appendicitis. One hundred fifty nine patients were treated with the intraumbilical incision, and 121 patients were treated with the periumbilical incision. We compared the perioperative outcomes according to each laparoscopic incision.
There was no difference in operation time, postoperative hospital stay and analgesic requirement between the two groups. One case in the intraumbilical group (0.6%) and three cases in the periumbilical group (2.5%) developed wound infections. The umbilical complication rate showed no difference.
The wound complication rate of intraumbilical and periumbilical incisions are not different. Although this retrospective study has inherent limitations, the intraumbilical incision seems to be a safe and feasible alternative for the periumbilical incision that can be easier to perform, with better cosmetic results.
PMCID: PMC3514478  PMID: 23230554
Intraumbilical; Laparoscopic technique; Appendectomy
8.  The role of postoperative pelvic radiation in stage IV rectal cancer after resection of primary tumor 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):205-212.
To evaluate the effect of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor with or without metastasectomy.
Materials and Methods
Medical records of 112 patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-nine patients received synchronous or staged metastasectomy whereas fifty-three patients did not. Twenty-six patients received pelvic radiotherapy.
Median overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was 27, 70, and 11 months, respectively. Pathologic T (pT), N (pN) classification and complete metastasectomy were statistically significant factors in OS (p = 0.040, 0.020, and 0.002, respectively). RT did not improve OS or LRFS. There were no significant factors in LRFS. pT and pN classification were also significant prognostic factors in PFS (p = 0.010 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, RT improved LRFS in patients with pT4 disease (p = 0.026). The locoregional failure rate of the RT group and the non-RT group were 23.1% and 33.7%, showing no difference in the failure pattern of both groups (p = 0.260).
Postoperative pelvic RT did not improve LRFS of all metastatic rectal cancer patients; however, it can be recommended to patients with pT4 disease. A complete resection of metastatic masses should be performed if possible.
PMCID: PMC3546289  PMID: 23346540
Rectal neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Radiotherapy; Local neoplasm recurrence
9.  Tumor budding as a risk factor of lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal carcinoma: a retrospective study 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:16.
This study was designed to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early stage colorectal cancer, which was confirmed to a carcinoma that invaded the submucosa after radical resection.
In total, 55 patients revealing submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma on pathology who underwent curative radical resection at the Department of Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea from January 2007 to September 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Tumor size, depth of submucosal invasion, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor budding, and microacinar structure were reviewed by a single pathologist. Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables were used for comparing the clinicopathological features between two groups (whether lymph node involvement existed or not). Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard error while statistical significance is accepted at P < 0.05.
The mean age of 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) was 61.2 ± 9.6 years (range, 43–83). Histologically, eight (14.5%) patients had metastatic lymph node. In the univariate analysis, tumor budding (P = 0.047) was the only factor that was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Also, the tumor budding had a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 60.5%, and a negative predictive value of 0.958 for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal cancer.
The tumor budding seems to have a high sensitivity (83.3%), acceptable specificity (60.5%), and a high negative predictive value (0.958). A close examination of pathologic finding including tumor budding should be performed in order to manage early CRC properly.
PMCID: PMC3469500  PMID: 22866826
Lymph node metastasis; T1 colorectal cancer; Tumor budding
10.  The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study 
This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer.
From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve.
When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P = 0.042 and P = 0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P = 0.2036) and DFS ( P = 0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P = 0.013).
Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.
PMCID: PMC3449202  PMID: 22594580
Laparoscopic surgery; Learning curve; Long-term outcome; Right sided colon cancer
11.  Delorme's Procedure for Complete Rectal Prolapse: Does It Still Have It's Own Role? 
Although there are more than a hundred techniques, including the transabdominal and the perineal approaches, for the repair of the rectal prolapsed, none of them is perfect. The best repair should be chosen not only to correct the prolapse but also to restore defecatory function and to improve fecal incontinence throughout the patient's lifetime. The aim of this retrospective review is to evaluate clinical outcomes of the Delorme's procedure for the management of the complete rectal prolapse.
A total of 19 patients (13 females and 6 males) with complete rectal prolapses were treated by using the Delorme's procedure in St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, from February 1997 to February 2007. Postoperative anal incontinence was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score.
All 19 patients had incontinence to liquid stool, solid stool, and/or flatus preoperatively. Three (15.8%) patients reported recurrence of the rectal prolapse (at 6, 18, 29 months, respectively, after the operation). Information on postoperative incontinence was available for 16 of the 19 patients. Twelve of the 16 patients (75%) reported improved continence (5 [31.3%] were improved and 7 [43.7%] completely recovered from incontinence) while 4 patients had unchanged incontinence symptoms. One (6.3%) patient who did not have constipation preoperatively developed constipation after the operation.
The Delorme's procedure is associated with a marked improvement in anal continence, relatively low recurrence rates, and low incidence of postoperative constipation. This allows us to conclude that this procedure still has its own role in selected patients.
PMCID: PMC3296936  PMID: 22413077
Incontinence; Delorme's procedure; Rectal prolapse
12.  Clinicopathological features of retrorectal tumors in adults: 9 years of experience in a single institution 
Primary tumors of the retrorectal space in adults are very rare. Most of them are benign masses, but malignant masses are reported on occasion. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of retrorectal tumors.
The medical records of fifteen patients who underwent surgical resection of a retrorectal tumor from March 2002 to April 2010 in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively.
Out of 15 patients, thirteen were females and two males. About 1.7 patients were diagnosed with retrorectal tumor annually in our hospital. The incidence is one per 1,500 surgeries performed under general anesthesia. An anterior approach was performed in eight patients and a posterior approach with excision of the coccyx in five patients. Combined approach was performed in two patients. Four patients (three in abdominal approach and one in combined approach) underwent laparoscopic resection. The mean size of tumors was 6.2 ± 2.9 cm. Mature teratoma (four) and neurilemmoma (four) were the most common tumors. Except for one case of chondrosarcoma, fourteen tumors were confirmed to be of benign nature in histologic examination. Patients who underwent a transabdominal approach with laparoscopic surgery had no postoperative complication and had a tendency to experience earlier recovery than those with open surgery.
Surgical resection of a retrorectal tumor is recommended to relieve pressure symptoms and to confirm the diagnosis. A laparoscopic approach may offer excellent visualization of the deep structures in the retrorectal space, reduce surgical trauma, and be helpful for early postoperative recovery.
PMCID: PMC3204566  PMID: 22066111
Retrorectal tumor; Anterior approach; Posterior approach; Combined approach; Laparoscopy
13.  Hemorrhage from a jejunal polypoid hemangioma: single incisional laparoscopic approach 
Bleeding lesions in the small bowel are a much more significant challenge in terms of detection and treatment than those of the stomach or the large bowel, and require extensive gastrointestinal evaluation before a diagnosis can be made. The authors report the case of an 81-year-old female patient who underwent small bowel segmental resection by single incisional laparoscopic approach for distal jejunalhemangioma, which caused severe anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a highly enhancing polypoid tumor in the distal ileum. During the single incisional laparoscopic exploration using a 2 cm sized skin incision, jejuno-jejunal intussusceptions and a jejunal tumor were noted. Single incisional laparoscopy was performed to assist the jejunal segmental resection. Pathologic reports confirmed the lesion to be a jejunalhemangioma. The authors report an unusual case of jejunalhemangioma caused by intussusception and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which was treated by single incisional laparoscopic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3204695  PMID: 22066061
Jejunal hemangioma; Single incision; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
14.  Treatment of Right Colonic Diverticulitis: The Role of Nonoperative Treatment 
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of nonoperative treatment for right-sided colonic diverticulitis.
One hundred fifty-eight patients with right-sided colonic diverticulitis were evaluated. Clinical history, physical and radiologic findings, and treatments were reviewed retrospectively. Also, additional episodes and treatment modalities were checked.
Our patients were classified according to treatment modality; 135 patients (85.4%) underwent conservative treatment, including antibiotics and bowel rest, and 23 patients (14.6%) underwent surgery. The mean follow-up length was 37.3 months, and 17 patients (17.5%) underwent recurrent right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Based on treatment modality, including surgery and antibiotics, no significant differences in the clinical features and the recurrence rates were noted between the two groups.
Conservative management with bowel rest and antibiotics could be considered as a safe and effective option for treating right-sided colonic diverticulitis. This treatment option for right-sided colonic diverticulitis, even if the disease is complicated, may be the treatment of choice.
PMCID: PMC3017975  PMID: 21221240
Diverticulitis; Colonic diverticulitis; Drug therapy
15.  Oxaliplatin/5-FU without Leucovorin Chemotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
Fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin combination therapy have shown synergistic or additive effect against advanced colorectal cancer, but the frequency of mucositis and diarrhea is increased. Most previous studies have used high dose leucovorin (300~500 mg/m2). However, some studies of oxaliplatin and 5-FU with low-dose or high-dose leucovorin in Korea have shown similar response rates. Therefore, we studied the necessity of leucovorin and evaluated the objective tumor response rates and toxicities of a regimen of oxaliplatin and 5-FU without leucovorin every 2 weeks in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-four patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled between January 2002 and March 2003. Patients received 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1, a bolus 5-FU 400 mg/m2 on day 1 and a continuous 5-FU infusion at 600 mg/m2/ 22 hours days 1 and 2, every 2 weeks.
Of the 24 patients treated, 17 patients received previous 5FU with leucovorin and/or other chemotherapy. Three patients could not be evaluated. Five partial responses were observed with overall response rate of 21% (n=24). Of the previous chemotherapy group (n=17), 4 partial responses were observed with response rate of 24%. Median overall survival was 18 months (range 4~32 months) and median progression free survival was 4 months (range 2~6 months). This regimen was well tolerated and only 1 grade 3 anemia was observed.
Oxaliplatin/5-FU combination therapy without leucovorin achieved a relatively high response rate even in patients resistant to the previous 5-FU chemotherapy, and toxicity was minimal.
PMCID: PMC2785915  PMID: 19956516
Oxaliplatin; 5-Flurouracil; Colorectal neoplasms
16.  Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson's Hemangioma) of the Liver: A New Hepatic Lesion 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(2):305-308.
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's hemangioma) is a disease characterized by exuberant endothelial proliferation within the lumen of medium-sized veins. In 1923, Masson regarded this disease as a neoplasm inducing endothelial proliferation, however, now it is considered to be a reactive vascular proliferation following traumatic vascular stasis. The lesion has a propensity to occur in the head, neck, fingers, and trunk. Occurrence within the abdominal cavity is known to be very rare, and especially in the liver, there has been no reported case up to date. The authors have experienced intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the liver in a 69-yr-old woman, and report the case with a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC2822318  PMID: 15082910
Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia; Hemangioma; Liver

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