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1.  Rupture of undiagnosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma after shock wave lithotripsy in an 11-year-old girl 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2014;8(11-12):E878-E880.
We present a case of a rupture of an undiagnosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in an 11-year-old girl. Although SWL is generally regarded as safe, careful imaging before SWL is important to prevent life-threatening complications in children.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.1846
PMCID: PMC4250258  PMID: 25485021
2.  Prompt Management Is Most Important for Colonic Perforation After Colonoscopy 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(5):228-231.
Purpose
The incidence of complications after colonoscopy is very low. The complications after colonoscopy that are of clinical concern are bleeding and perforation. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical outcomes and the risk factors of a colostomy or a colectomy after colonoscopic colon perforation.
Methods
From March 2009 to December 2012, the records of all patients who were treated for colorectal perforation after colonoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, purpose of colonoscopy, management of the colonic perforation, and interval from colonoscopy to the diagnosis of a colonic perforation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the risk factors associated with major surgery for the treatment of a colon perforation after colonoscopy.
Results
A total 27 patients were included in the present study. The mean age was 62 years, and 16 were males. The purpose of colonoscopy was diagnostic in 18 patients. The most common perforation site was the sigmoid colon. Colonic perforation was diagnosed during colonoscopy in 14 patients, just after colonoscopy in 5 patients, and 24 hours or more after colonoscopy in 8 patients. For the treatment of colonic perforation, endoscopic clipping was performed in 3 patients, primary closure in 15 patients, colon resection in 2 patients, Hartmann's procedures in 4 patients, and diverting colostomy in 3 patients. If the diagnosis of perforation after colonoscopy was delayed for more than 24 hours, the need for major treatment was increased significantly.
Conclusion
Although a colonic perforation after colonoscopy is rare, if the morbidity and the mortality associated with the colonic perforation are to be reduced, prompt diagnosis and management are very important.
doi:10.3393/ac.2014.30.5.228
PMCID: PMC4213939  PMID: 25360430
Intestinal perforation; Colonoscopy
3.  A Comparison Between ThinPrep Monolayer and Cytospin Cytology for the Detection of Bladder Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(6):390-394.
Purpose
The sensitivity of urine cytology is higher for carcinoma in situ and poorly differentiated tumors in bladder cancer, while being fairly low for low-grade or well-differentiated tumors. Development of a sensitive diagnostic test to detect bladder carcinoma would significantly facilitate patient management and allow earlier treatment of this disease. This study compared ThinPrep urine cytology (Cytyc Co.) and conventional Cytospin urine cytology (Shandon Scientific Ltd.) in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Materials and Methods
From January 2002 to December 2010, ThinPrep cytology and conventional urine Cytospin cytologic examination of bladder washings were performed in 3,085 subjects suspected of having bladder cancer and in 379 patients with follow-up after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). The sensitivity and specificity of the urine ThinPrep test was compared with that of conventional Cytospin cytology according to tumor number, size, pathological stage, grade, and recurrence.
Results
Of 3,085 subjects, bladder cancer was confirmed by TUR-BT in 379 subjects. The overall sensitivity of ThinPrep and Cytospin cytology was 60.9% and 59.9% in patients suspected of having bladder cancer, respectively. The overall specificity of ThinPrep and Cytospin cytology was 94.8% and 95.3% in patients suspected of having bladder cancer, respectively. The sensitivity of ThinPrep and Cytospin cytology was increased with increasing number, size, pathological stage, and grade, but there was no significant difference between the two tests.
Conclusions
These results suggest that ThinPrep cytology has no advantage in the diagnosis of bladder cancer of a low grade or low stage.
doi:10.4111/kju.2014.55.6.390
PMCID: PMC4064047  PMID: 24955223
Cytospin cytology; ThinPrep; Urinary bladder neoplasm
4.  Primary Benign Intraosseous Meningioma on 18F-FDG PET/CT Mimicking Malignancy 
We present a case of primary benign intraosseous meningioma in the sphenoid bone mimicking malignancy. A 44-year-old female patient who had a protruding right eye and headache came to our hospital. MRI showed a large, destructive, heterogeneously well-enhancing soft tissue mass in the right sphenoid bone suggesting malignancy. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed a hypermetabolic mass in the same site with an SUVmax of 9.1 The pathological diagnosis by surgery revealed that this tumor was a WHO grade I transitional meningioma. This case suggests that primary benign intraosseous meningioma may show high 18F-FDG uptake mimicking a malignancy.
doi:10.1007/s13139-013-0259-8
PMCID: PMC4028472  PMID: 24900156
Benign meningioma; Sphenoid bone; PET/CT; 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose
5.  Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor 
Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor is very rare, although secondary mesenteric involvement is common, reported as 40% to 80%. And distant metastasis rate reported as 80% to 90%, when the size is larger than 2 cm. We present a case of very rare primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor showing benign character though large size. The patient visited St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea with increasing palpable abdominal mass. At laparotomy, a well encapsulated mass arising from the mesentery near the ligament of Treitz was found without any adjacent organ invasion or distant metastasis. The mass was measured as 8.2 × 7.3 cm and histopathologically benign character. At 11 months of follow up, the patient was recurrence free.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.2.114
PMCID: PMC3566469  PMID: 23397044
Carcinoid tumor; Mesentery; Neoplasms
6.  Intraocular Lymphoma after Cardiac Transplantation: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;14(1):122-125.
We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.1.122
PMCID: PMC3542295  PMID: 23323042
Orbit, neoplasms; Orbit, MR; Lymphoma; Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder
7.  Current Management of Testicular Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(1):2-10.
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare, but are the most common cancer in young men. GCTs may consist of one predominant histologic pattern or may represent a mixture of multiple histologic types. For treatment purposes, two broad categories are recognized: 1) pure seminoma and 2) others, which together are termed nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). In general, seminoma tends to be less aggressive, to be diagnosed at an earlier stage, and to spread predictably along lymphatic channels to the retroperitoneum before spreading hematogenously to the lung or other organs. Compared with NSGCTs, seminoma is exquisitely sensitive to radiation therapy and platinum-based chemotherapy. NSGCTs are usually mixed tumors and teratoma often exists at the sites of metastasis with other GCT elements; cure often requires chemotherapy to kill the chemosensitive-components and surgery to remove the teratomatous components. The main factors contributing to excellent cure rates of GCTs are careful staging at diagnosis; adequate early treatment using chemotherapeutic combinations, with or without radiotherapy and surgery; and very strict follow-up and salvage therapy. We review several clinical studies and summarize the current trends in the management of GCTs.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.1.2
PMCID: PMC3556548  PMID: 23362440
Neoplasms; Testis; Therapeutics
8.  Cavernous Hemangiolymphangioma of the Testis without Cutaneous Hemangiomatosis in an Elderly Patient 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(11):810-812.
Hemangiolymphangioma is an extremely rare malformation of both the lymphatic and blood vessels. To date, however, there are no reports in the literature of a hemangiolymphangioma of the testis. An 84-year-old man visited our hospital for investigation of a 1-month episode of a rapidly growing mass in his right scrotum. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed a multilobulated mass with septation in the testis. Testicular tumor markers were within the normal limit. Radical orchiectomy was performed. At surgery, a red, wide-based, nodular tumor was found on the testis. Histological examination of the resected specimen showed it to be a cavernous hemangiolymphangioma. Here we report this first case of a cavernous hemangiolymphangioma of the testis without cutaneous hemangiomatosis in an elderly patient.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.11.810
PMCID: PMC3502743  PMID: 23185676
Hemangioma; Lymphangioma; Testis
9.  The Direct Anti-Cancer Effect of a Single Instillation of Epirubicin after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(2):78-81.
Purpose
To evaluate the direct anti-cancer effect of a single instillation of epirubicin (SIE) after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) by analysis of immediate urine cytology (IUC).
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the records of 158 patients who had IUC after TURBT for NMIBC. Fifty-six patients were treated with SIE after TURBT and 102 patients were not treated with SIE. The direct anti-cancer effect of SIE was compared in the two groups according to the result of IUC. The relationship between SIE and IUC in NMIBC was analyzed by use of multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results
The IUC-positive rate was 33.9% in the SIE group and 42.1% in the non-SIE group (p=0.005). The IUC-positive rate was lower in the SIE group than in the non-SIE group for each factor, including tumor stage, tumor grade, tumor size, tumor multiplicity, and preoperative urine cytology. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that SIE was significantly associated with a negative IUC result in patients with NMIBC (HR, 0.163) (p<0.001).
Conclusions
These results indicate the direct anti-cancer effect of SIE in patients who undergo TURBT for NMIBC.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.2.78
PMCID: PMC3285712  PMID: 22379584
Epirubicin; Neoplasms; Urinary bladder
10.  Floating Hem-o-Lok Clips in the Bladder without Stone Formation after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(1):60-62.
Hem-o-Lok clips (Weck Surgical Instruments, Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC, USA) are widely used in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy because of their easy application and secure clamping. To date, there have been some reports of intravesical migration of these clips causing urethral erosion, bladder neck contractures, and subsequent calculus formation. We report the first case of bladder migration of Hem-o-Lok clips without stone formation after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The Hem-o-Lok clips were found during urethral dilation with a guide wire for bladder neck contracture under cystourethroscopy. The Hem-o-Lok clips were floating in the bladder without stone formation and were removed by a cystoscopic procedure.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.1.60
PMCID: PMC3272559  PMID: 22323977
Prostatectomy; Robotics; Surgical instruments
11.  Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma: CT and MR Imaging Findings 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(4):416-419.
We report CT and MR imaging findings for a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma occurring in a 19-month-old boy. A nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is a rare benign pediatric hamartoma that can simulate malignancy. Although rare, knowledge of this entity is essential to avoid potentially harmful therapies.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2009.10.4.416
PMCID: PMC2702054  PMID: 19568473
Nose, neoplasms; Paranasal sinus, neoplasms; Paranasal sinus, CT; Paranasal sinus, MR
12.  Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix: A rare case report and our 18-year experience 
Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare malignancy that constitutes < 0.5% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Moreover, primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix is an exceedingly rare entity. We have encountered 15 cases of primary appendiceal cancer among 3389 patients who underwent appendectomy over the past 18 years. In the present report, we describe a rare case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix with ovarian metastases and unresectable peritoneal dissemination occurring in a 67-year-old female patient. She underwent appendectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with a laparoscopy procedure. She then received palliative systemic chemotherapy with 12 cycles of oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX-4). The patient currently is well without progression of disease 12 mo after beginning chemotherapy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.5763
PMCID: PMC2748216  PMID: 18837098
Appendiceal neoplasms; Carcinoma; Signet ring cell; Chemotherapy
13.  MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(3):212-218.
Objective
To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T).
Materials and Methods
Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22-71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals.
Results
Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE.
Conclusion
Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.3.212
PMCID: PMC2627251  PMID: 18525223
Temporal bone, MR; Cisternography, MR; Magnetic resonance (MR), pulse sequences; Magnetic resonance (MR), highfield-strength imaging
14.  The Usefulness of MR Imaging of the Temporal Bone in the Evaluation of Patients with Facial and Audiovestibular Dysfunction 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2002;3(1):16-23.
Objective
To evaluate the clinical utility of MR imaging of the temporal bone in patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction with particular emphasis on the importance of contrast enhancement.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 179 patients [72 men, 107 women; average age, 44 (range, 1-77) years] who presented with peripheral facial palsy (n=15), audiometrically proven sensorineural hearing loss (n=104), vertigo (n=109), or tinnitus (n=92). Positive MR imaging findings possibly responsible for the patients clinical manifestations were categorized according to the anatomic sites and presumed etiologies of the lesions. We also assessed the utility of contrast-enhanced MR imaging by analyzing its contribution to the demonstration of lesions which would otherwise not have been apparent. All MR images were interpreted by two neuroradiologists, who reached their conclusions by consensus.
Results
MR images demonstrated positive findings, thought to account for the presenting symptoms, in 78 (44%) of 179 patients, including 15 (100%) of 15 with peripheral facial palsy, 43 (41%) of 104 with sensorineural hearing loss, 40 (37%) of 109 with vertigo, and 39 (42%) of 92 with tinnitus. Thirty (38%) of those 78 patients had lesions that could be confidently recognized only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
Conclusion
Even though its use led to positive findings in less than half of these patients, MR imaging of the temporal bone is a useful diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of those with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction. Because it was only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging that a significant number of patients showed positive imaging findings which explained their clinical manifestations, the use of contrast material is highly recommended.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2002.3.1.16
PMCID: PMC2713982  PMID: 11919474
Temporal bone, MR; Temporal bone, abnormalities; Magnetic resonance(MR), contrast enhancement
15.  Cisplatin-induced Kidney Dysfunction and Perspectives on Improving Treatment Strategies 
Cisplatin is one of the most widely used and highly effective drug for the treatment of various solid tumors; however, it has dose-dependent side effects on the kidney, cochlear, and nerves. Nephrotoxicity is the most well-known and clinically important toxicity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that several mechanisms, including oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammatory responses, are closely associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Even though the establishment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity can be alleviated by diuretics and pre-hydration of patients, the prevalence of cisplatin nephrotoxicity is still high, occurring in approximately one-third of patients who have undergone cisplatin therapy. Therefore it is imperative to develop treatments that will ameliorate cisplatin-nephrotoxicity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and the new strategies for protecting the kidneys from the toxic effects without lowering the tumoricidal activity.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2014.12.2.55
PMCID: PMC4297704  PMID: 25606044
Cisplatin; Chemotherapy; Nephrotoxicity; NAD+
16.  Development of a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life in Korean Children With Allergic Rhinitis 
Purpose
Korean children have their own unique lifestyle based on their living environment and culture. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life in Korean children with allergic rhinitis.
Methods
After a preliminary survey, an initial questionnaire was developed. Questions were modified to be easily understood by young children aged 6 to 7 years. The modified questionnaire was tested on children aged 6 to 12 years old. Item scores, defined as the proportion of children whose answer score was 1 point or higher was multiplied by the average answer score of each question, were used to identify questions that have practical application to the quality of life in Korean children with allergic rhinitis. Differences in answer scores between children with allergic rhinitis and those who were healthy were assessed by a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between nasal index scores and quality of life scores was determined by a Spearman rank order test.
Results
An initial questionnaire was composed of 21 items. We identified 19 questions with item scores above 0.5 in children with allergic rhinitis, many of which were related to nasal symptoms and 10 questions that were different between the allergic rhinitis group and the control group. The final questionnaire included the 10 questions that had both high item scores and a significant difference in the answer scores between the two groups.
Conclusions
The developed questionnaire is essential and practical for assessing discomfort related to the symptoms felt by Korean children with allergic rhinitis.
doi:10.4168/aair.2014.6.6.541
PMCID: PMC4214975  PMID: 25374754
Allergic rhinitis; quality of Life; children; questionnaire
17.  Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty 
Purpose
Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP) in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.
Methods
This retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate) at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.
Results
Six serious side effects (0.9%) were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621). Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.
Conclusion
Sterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.
doi:10.6065/apem.2014.19.3.135
PMCID: PMC4208261  PMID: 25346917
Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Central precocious puberty; Leuprolide; Triptorelin
18.  Primary Benign Intraosseous Meningioma on 18F-FDG PET/CT Mimicking Malignancy 
We present a case of primary benign intraosseous meningioma in the sphenoid bone mimicking malignancy. A 44-year-old female patient who had a protruding right eye and headache came to our hospital. MRI showed a large, destructive, heterogeneously well-enhancing soft tissue mass in the right sphenoid bone suggesting malignancy. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed a hypermetabolic mass in the same site with an SUVmax of 9.1 The pathological diagnosis by surgery revealed that this tumor was a WHO grade I transitional meningioma. This case suggests that primary benign intraosseous meningioma may show high 18F-FDG uptake mimicking a malignancy.
doi:10.1007/s13139-013-0259-8
PMCID: PMC4028472  PMID: 24900156
Benign meningioma; Sphenoid bone; PET/CT; 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose
19.  Transanal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery total mesorectal excision in animal models: endoscopic inferior mesenteric artery dissection made easier by a retroperitoneal approach 
Purpose
We report the performance of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) low anterior resection in animals using transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) with laparoscopic assistance and endoscopic inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) dissection.
Methods
Four pigs weighing 45 kg each, and one dog weighing 25 kg, underwent surgery via a transanal approach. The rectum was occluded transanally using a purse-string suture, approximately 3-4 cm from the anal verge. The rectal mucosa was incised circumferentially just distal to the purse-string. A SILS or GelPOINT port was inserted transanally. Transanal TME was assisted by laparoscopy and proceeded up to the peritoneal reflection. More proximal dissection, including IMA dissection, was performed along the retroperitoneal avascular plane by endoscopy alone and facilitated by CO2 insufflation. The IMA was clipped and divided endoscopically. The mobilized rectosigmoid were exteriorized transanally and transected. A colorectal anastomosis was performed using a circular stapler with a single stapling technique.
Results
Endoscopic dissection of the IMA was successful in all five animals. The mean operation time was 125 minutes (range, 90-170 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. The mean length of the resected specimen was 14.4 cm (range, 12-16 cm).
Conclusion
A NOTES retroperitoneal approach to the IMA with CO2 insufflation and intact peritoneal covering overcame the difficulties of retraction and exposure of endoscopic dissection in animals.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.1.1
PMCID: PMC4091439  PMID: 25025019
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery; Retroperitoneal approach; Total mesorectal excision; Inferior mesenteric artery
20.  Patterns of Gene Expression Associated with Pten Deficiency in the Developing Inner Ear 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e97544.
In inner ear development, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is necessary for neuronal maintenance, such as neuronal survival and accurate nerve innervations of hair cells. We previously reported that Pten conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited disorganized fasciculus with neuronal apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). To better understand the genes and signaling networks related to auditory neuron maintenance, we compared the profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using microarray analysis of the inner ear in E14.5 Pten cKO and wild-type mice. We identified 46 statistically significant transcripts using significance analysis of microarrays, with the false-discovery rate set at 0%. Among the DEGs, expression levels of candidate genes and expression domains were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis using DEGs identified significant signaling networks associated with apoptosis, cellular movement, and axon guidance (i.e., secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1)-mediated cellular movement and regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4)-mediated axon guidance). This result was consistent with the phenotypic defects of SGNs in Pten cKO mice (e.g., neuronal apoptosis, abnormal migration, and irregular nerve fiber patterns of SGNs). From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097544
PMCID: PMC4043736  PMID: 24893171
21.  NAD+ Metabolism in Age-Related Hearing Loss 
Aging and Disease  2014;5(2):150-159.
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), a degenerative disorder characterized by age-dependent progressive increase in the threshold of auditory sensitivity, affects 40% of people over the age of 65, and it has emerged as an important social and public health problem. Various factors, including genetic and environmental components, are known to affect both the onset and severity of ARHL. In particular, age-dependent changes in cellular oxidative stress and inflammatory responses accompanied by altered cellular signaling and gene expression progressively affect the function of the auditory system and eventually lead to hearing impairment. Recent findings suggest that a disturbance of intracellular NAD+ levels is clinically related to the progression of age-associated disorders. Therefore, maintenance of optimal intracellular NAD+ levels may be a critical factor for cellular senescence, and thus, understanding its molecular signaling pathways would provide critical insights into the prevention and treatment of ARHL as well as other age-related diseases. In this review, we describe the role of NAD+ metabolism in aging and age-related diseases, including ARHL, and discuss a potential strategy for prevention or treatment of ARHL with a particular interest in NAD+-dependent cellular pathways.
doi:10.14336/AD.2014.0500150
PMCID: PMC3966673  PMID: 24729940
Age-related hearing loss; NAD+; degenerative disorder; metabolism
22.  Capsaicin Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Renal Injury through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 
Molecules and Cells  2014;37(3):234-240.
Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents. However, its use is limited due to its toxicity in normal tissues, including the kidney and ear. In particular, nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme metabolism, has been implicated in a various cellular processes, such as inflammatory injury and anti-oxidant/oxidant homeostasis. Capsaicin is reported to have therapeutic potential in cisplatin-induced renal failures. However, the mechanisms underlying its protective effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that administration of capsaicin ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction by assessing the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as well as tissue histology. In addition, capsaicin treatment attenuates the expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers for renal damage. We also found that capsaicin induces HO-1 expression in kidney tissues and HK-2 cells. Notably, the protective effects of capsaicin were completely abrogated by treatment with either the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX or HO-1 knockdown in HK-2 cells. These results suggest that capsaicin has protective effects against cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction through induction of HO-1 as well as inhibition oxidative stress and inflammation.
doi:10.14348/molcells.2014.2322
PMCID: PMC3969044  PMID: 24642709
capsaicin; cisplatin; HO-1; nephrotoxicity
23.  Improved reversibility in lithium-oxygen battery: Understanding elementary reactions and surface charge engineering of metal alloy catalyst 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4225.
Most Li-O2 batteries suffer from sluggish kinetics during oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). To overcome this drawback, we take the lesson from other catalysis researches that showed improved catalytic activities by employing metal alloy catalysts. Such research effort has led us to find Pt3Co nanoparticles as an effective OER catalyst in Li-O2 batteries. The superior catalytic activity was reflected in the substantially decreased overpotentials and improved cycling/rate performance compared to those of other catalysts. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the low OER overpotentials are associated with the reduced adsorption strength of LiO2 on the outermost Pt catalytic sites. Also, the alloy catalyst generates amorphous Li2O2 conformally coated around the catalyst and thus facilitates easier decomposition and higher reversibility. This investigation conveys an important message that understanding elementary reactions and surface charge engineering of air-catalysts are one of the most effective approaches in resolving the chronic sluggish charging kinetics in Li-O2 batteries.
doi:10.1038/srep04225
PMCID: PMC3936231  PMID: 24573326
24.  Arthroscopic Tenoplasty in Congenital Split Biceps Long Head 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2014;3(2):e193-e196.
The long head of the biceps brachii tendon arises mainly from the superior glenoid labrum and supraglenoid tubercle. Biceps brachii display anatomic variations, but these are rarely encountered. We report, for the first time, a technique called arthroscopic intra-articular biceps tenoplasty describing restoration of the long head of the biceps tendon using the superior capsule in a case of anomalous congenital split biceps tendon encountered incidentally during diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy in a patient who was treated for shoulder instability and SLAP tear.
doi:10.1016/j.eats.2013.09.017
PMCID: PMC4044499  PMID: 24904759

Results 1-25 (74)