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1.  Impact of Diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease on the Functional Microcirculation at the Plantar Foot 
Background:
Plastic and reconstructive surgeons are commonly faced with chronic ulcerations and consecutive wound infections of the feet as complications in patients with diabetes and/or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Microcirculatory changes seem to play an important role. However, the evaluation of functional changes in the soft tissue microcirculation at the plantar foot using combined Laser-Doppler and Photospectrometry System has not yet been performed in patients with DM or PAOD.
Methods:
A prospective, controlled cohort study was designed consisting of a total of 107 subjects allocated to 1 of 3 groups—group A: healthy subjects (57% males, 63.3 y); group B: patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (53% males, 59.4 y); and group C: patients with PAOD (81% males, 66.1 y). Microcirculatory data were assessed using a combined Laser-Doppler and Photospectrometry System.
Results:
Global cutaneous oxygen saturation microcirculation at the plantar foot of healthy individuals was 8.4% higher than in patients with DM and 8.1% higher than in patients with PAOD (both P = 0.033). Patients with diabetes did not show significant differences in global cutaneous blood flow when compared with either healthy subjects or patients suffering from PAOD.
Conclusions:
Functional microcirculation at the plantar foot differs between healthy subjects and patients suffering from diabetes or PAOD of the same age. Patients with either diabetes or PAOD demonstrate deteriorated cutaneous oxygen saturation with equivalent blood perfusion at the plantar foot. More clinical studies have to be conducted to evaluate therapeutical methods that might ameliorate cutaneous oxygen saturation within diabetic foot disease and PAOD.
doi:10.1097/GOX.0b013e3182a4b9cb
PMCID: PMC4174050  PMID: 25289243
2.  Acute effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cutaneous microcirculation - a controlled prospective cohort study 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:32.
Background
Therapeutic strategies aiming to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury by conditioning tissue tolerance against ischemia appear attractive not only from a scientific perspective, but also in clinics. Although previous studies indicate that remote ischemic intermittent preconditioning (RIPC) is a systemic phenomenon, only a few studies have focused on the elucidation of its mechanisms of action especially in the clinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the acute microcirculatory effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on a distinct cutaneous location at the lower extremity which is typically used as a harvesting site for free flap reconstructive surgery in a human in-vivo setting.
Methods
Microcirculatory data of 27 healthy subjects (25 males, age 24 ± 4 years, BMI 23.3) were evaluated continuously at the anterolateral aspect of the left thigh during RIPC using combined Laser-Doppler and photospectrometry (Oxygen-to-see, Lea Medizintechnik, Germany). After baseline microcirculatory measurement, remote ischemia was induced using a tourniquet on the contralateral upper arm for three cycles of 5 min.
Results
After RIPC, tissue oxygen saturation and capillary blood flow increased up to 29% and 35% during the third reperfusion phase versus baseline measurement, respectively (both p = 0.001). Postcapillary venous filling pressure decreased statistically significant by 16% during second reperfusion phase (p = 0.028).
Conclusion
Remote intermittent ischemic preconditioning affects cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation, arterial capillary blood flow and postcapillary venous filling pressure at a remote cutaneous location of the lower extremity. To what extent remote preconditioning might ameliorate reperfusion injury in soft tissue trauma or free flap transplantation further clinical trials have to evaluate.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01235286
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-32
PMCID: PMC3231986  PMID: 22111972
Remote ischemic preconditioning; cutaneous microcirculation; free flap; soft tissue

Results 1-2 (2)