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1.  Cassia cinnamon does not change the insulin sensitivity or the liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance 
Nutrition Journal  2014;13(1):96.
Background
Published studies have reported conflicting results regarding the effects of cinnamon on glucose, lipids and insulin. To gain further insight into the metabolic effects of Cinnamomum cassia we performed randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study using euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp.
Methods
Twenty-one subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were included in the study (10 or 11 subjects in each group). The study groups were matched for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Waist-to-hip ratio, BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein , HbA1c, ASAT, ALAT, bilirubin, ALP, GT and PK were measured before and after the intake of capsules equivalent to 6 g cinnamon twice a day for 12 weeks. The changes in insulin resistance were measured by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. The Wilcoxon signed rank sum test, the Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson’s chi-squared test were used to analyse the data. Values of p < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistically significant differences.
Results
At enrolment, the groups were similar in terms of age, gender and BMI. Of the 21 randomized patients with IGT, 17 completed the study (8 controls vs. 9 treated). The ingestion of 6 g cinnamon twice a day for 12 weeks had no significant effect on insulin sensitivity, HbA1c, fasting glucose or BMI. No significant changes were seen in lipids or liver enzymes.
Conclusions
This study showed that ingestion of 6 g C. cassia twice a day for 12 weeks did not change the insulin sensitivity or liver enzymes in subjects with IGT.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-96
PMCID: PMC4180052  PMID: 25249415
2.  Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress 
Objective
Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.
Methods
Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal.
Results
Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from fasting values 30 minutes after the meal, and had not returned to baseline after 110 minutes. ESS decreased from 65 ± 16 kdynes/cm2 (fasting) to 44 ± 12 kdynes/cm2 30 minutes after, and to 58 ± 13 kdynes/cm2 110 minutes after eating. cESS decreased from 98 ± 24 kdynes/cm2 to 67 ± 18 kdynes/cm2 30 minutes after, and to 87 ± 19 kdynes/cm2 110 minutes after the meal.
Conclusion
This study shows that left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.
doi:10.1186/1476-7120-12-2
PMCID: PMC3922699  PMID: 24468220
Food intake; Echocardiography; Wall stress
3.  A High Diet Quality Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Cardiovascular Events in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71095.
Aims
To investigate if diet quality is related to incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events.
Subjects and Methods
A diet quality index based on the 2005 Swedish Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish Dietary Guidelines was created and included six dietary components: saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. The index ranked 17126 participants (59% women) of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (Sweden) on their dietary intakes. Total index score was categorized as low, medium or high. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model associations between index score categories and index components with risk of incident CV events, with adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of first CV events (non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke or death from ischemic heart disease) was monitored from baseline (1991–1996) until December 31, 2008; 703 CV events occurred in women and 1093 in men.
Results
A high diet quality was associated with decreased risk of CV events when compared to a low diet quality. In multivariate analysis, the risk reduction was 32% (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.49–0.73) in men and 27% (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59–0.91) in women. When examined separately and mutually adjusted for each other, the individual components were either not associated with CV risk or marginally decreased risks were seen.
Conclusion
High quality diets in line with current recommendations may reduce the risk of CV events. This study illustrates the importance of considering a combination of dietary factors when evaluating diet-disease associations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071095
PMCID: PMC3733649  PMID: 23940694
4.  Pressure transduction and fluid evacuation during conventional negative pressure wound therapy of the open abdomen and NPWT using a protective disc over the intestines 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:4.
Background
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has gained acceptance among surgeons, for the treatment of open abdomen, since very high closure rates have been reported with this method, compared to other kinds of wound management for the open abdomen. However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of fistulae. We have previously shown that NPWT induces ischemia in the underlying small intestines close to the vacuum source, and that a protective disc placed between the intestines and the vacuum source prevents the induction of ischemia. In this study we compare pressure transduction and fluid evacuation of the open abdomen with conventional NPWT and NPWT with a protective disc.
Methods
Six pigs underwent midline incision and the application of conventional NPWT and NPWT with a protective disc between the intestines and the vacuum source. The pressure transduction was measured centrally beneath the dressing, and at the anterior abdominal wall, before and after the application of topical negative pressures of -50, -70 and -120 mmHg. The drainage of fluid from the abdomen was measured, with and without the protective disc.
Results
Abdominal drainage was significantly better (p < 0. 001) using NPWT with the protective disc at -120 mmHg (439 ± 25 ml vs. 239 ± 31 ml), at -70 mmHg (341 ± 27 ml vs. 166 ± 9 ml) and at -50 mmHg (350 ± 50 ml vs. 151 ± 21 ml) than with conventional NPWT. The pressure transduction was more even at all pressure levels using NPWT with the protective disc than with conventional NPWT.
Conclusions
The drainage of the open abdomen was significantly more effective when using NWPT with the protective disc than with conventional NWPT. This is believed to be due to the more even and effective pressure transduction in the open abdomen using a protective disc in combination with NPWT.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-4
PMCID: PMC3339517  PMID: 22443416
5.  Dietary Fiber and Saturated Fat Intake Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Differ by Sex in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort: A Prospective Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e31637.
Background
The aim of the study was to examine associations between intake of macronutrients and dietary fiber and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease (iCVD) in men and women.
Methods
We used data from 8,139 male and 12,535 female participants (aged 44–73 y) of the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The participants were without history of CVD and diabetes mellitus, and had reported stable dietary habits in the study questionnaire. Diet was assessed by a validated modified diet history method, combining a 7-d registration of cooked meals and cold beverages, a 168-item food questionnaire (covering other foods and meal patterns), and a 1-hour diet interview. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected by questionnaire. iCVD cases, which included coronary events (myocardial infarctions or deaths from chronic ischemic heart disease) and ischemic strokes, were ascertained via national and local registries. Nutrient-disease associations were examined by multivariate Cox regressions.
Results
During a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, we identified 1,089 male and 687 female iCVD cases. High fiber intakes were associated with lower incidence rates of iCVD in women and of ischemic stroke in men. In post-hoc analysis, we discovered statistically significant interactions between intake of fiber and saturated fat; these interactions also differed between men and women (p<0.001).
Conclusions
In this well-defined population, a high fiber intake was associated with lower risk of iCVD, but there were no robust associations between other macronutrients and iCVD risk. Judging from this study, gender-specific nutrient analysis may be preferable in epidemiology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031637
PMCID: PMC3288044  PMID: 22384046
6.  The effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin on cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure 
Background
Ingestion of a meal increases the blood flow to the gastrointestinal organs and affects the heart rate (HR), blood pressure and cardiac output (CO), although the mechanisms are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin on CO, HR, stroke volume (SV), and blood pressure.
Methods
Eleven healthy men and twelve healthy women ((mean ± SEM) aged: 26 ± 0.2 y; body mass index: 21.8 ± 0.1 kg/m2)) were included in this study. The CO, HR, SV, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antral area, gastric emptying rate, and glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin levels were measured.
Results
The CO and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting in both men and women (P < 0.05). In men, significant correlations were found between GLP-1 level at 30 min and SV at 30 min (P = 0.015, r = 0.946), and between ghrelin levels and HR (P = 0.013, r = 0.951) at 110 min. Significant correlations were also found between the change in glucose level at 30 min and the change in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.021, r = -0.681), and the change in SV (P = 0.008, r = -0.748) relative to the fasting in men. The insulin 0-30 min AUC was significantly correlated to the CO 0-30 min AUC (P = 0.002, r = 0.814) in men. Significant correlations were also found between the 0-120 min ghrelin and HR AUCs (P = 0.007, r = 0.966) in men. No statistically significant correlations were seen in women.
Conclusions
Physiological changes in the levels of glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin may influence the activity of the heart and the blood pressure. There may also be gender-related differences in the haemodynamic responses to postprandial changes in hormone levels. The results of this study show that subjects should not eat immediately prior to, or during, the evaluation of cardiovascular interventions as postprandial affects may affect the results, leading to erroneous interpretation of the cardiovascular effects of the primary intervention.
Trial registration number
NCT01027507
doi:10.1186/1476-7120-9-43
PMCID: PMC3280936  PMID: 22206473
7.  Microvascular blood flow response in the intestinal wall and the omentum during negative wound pressure therapy of the open abdomen 
Purpose
Higher closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) compared with other wound therapy techniques. However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of intestinal fistulae. The present study measures microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall and the omentum before and during NPWT.
Methods
Six pigs underwent midline incision and application of NPWT to the open abdomen. The microvascular blood flow in the underlying intestinal loop wall and the omentum was recorded before and after the application of NPWT of −50, −70, −100, −120, −150, and −170 mmHg respectively, using laser Doppler velocimetry.
Results
A significant decrease in microvascular blood flow was seen in the intestinal wall during application of all negative pressures levels. The blood flow was 2.7 (±0.2) Perfusion Units (PU) before and 2.0 (±0.2) PU (*p < 0.05) after application of −50 mmHg, and 3.6 (±0.6) PU before and 1.5 (±0.2) PU (**p < 0.01) after application of −170 mmHg.
Conclusions
In the present study, we show that negative pressures between −50 and −170 mmHg induce a significant decrease in the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall. The decrease in blood flow increased with the amount of negative pressure applied. One can only speculate that a longstanding decreased blood flow in the intestinal wall may induce ischemia and secondary necrosis in the intestinal wall, which, theoretically, could promote the development of intestinal fistulae. We believe that NPWT of the open abdomen is a very effective treatment but could probably be improved.
doi:10.1007/s00384-011-1317-2
PMCID: PMC3281201  PMID: 21938450
Negative pressure wound therapy; Open abdomen; Microvascular blood flow; Intestinal wall; Omentum
8.  Macroscopic changes during negative pressure wound therapy of the open abdomen using conventional negative pressure wound therapy and NPWT with a protective disc over the intestines 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:10.
Background
Higher closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) than with other wound management techniques. However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of fistulae. We have previously shown that NPWT induces ischemia in the underlying small intestines close to the vacuum source, and that a protective disc placed between the intestines and the vacuum source prevents the induction of ischemia. In the present study we compare macroscopic changes after 12, 24, and 48 hours, using conventional NPWT and NPWT with a protective disc between the intestines and the vacuum source.
Methods
Twelve pigs underwent midline incision. Six animals underwent conventional NPWT, while the other six pigs underwent NPWT with a protective disc inserted between the intestines and the vacuum source. Macroscopic changes were photographed and quantified after 12, 24, and 48 hours of NPWT.
Results
The surface of the small intestines was red and mottled as a result of petechial bleeding in the intestinal wall in all cases. After 12, 24 and 48 hours of NPWT, the area of petechial bleeding was significantly larger when using conventional NPWT than when using NPWT with the protective disc (9.7 ± 1.0 cm2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm2, p < 0.001, 12 hours), (14.5 ± 0.9 cm2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 cm2, 24 hours) (17.0 ± 0.7 cm2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 cm2 with the disc, p < 0.001, 48 hours)
Conclusions
The areas of petechial bleeding in the small intestinal wall were significantly larger following conventional NPWT after 12, 24 and 48 hours, than using NPWT with a protective disc between the intestines and the vacuum source. The protective disc protects the intestines, reducing the amount of petechial bleeding.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-10
PMCID: PMC3095529  PMID: 21529362
negative pressure wound therapy; open abdomen; macroscopic changes; intestinal wall
9.  Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects 
Nutrition Journal  2011;10:26.
Background
The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER), satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects.
Methods
Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S'), early (E') and late (A') mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s) and lateral (l) walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal.
Results
This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's) and lateral wall (S'l), the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l), the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's) and lateral wall (A'l) increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR.
Conclusions
This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may affect the results and their interpretation.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01027507
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-26
PMCID: PMC3075212  PMID: 21429209
10.  Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial 
Nutrition Journal  2010;9:63.
Background
Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea.
Methods
The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times.
Results
Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water.
Conclusions
Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea.
Trial registration number
NCT01086189
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-63
PMCID: PMC3002911  PMID: 21118565
11.  Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects 
Nutrition Journal  2010;9:43.
Background
Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects.
Methods
Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively.
Results
The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT.
Conclusions
The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.
Trial registration number
NCT01029327
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-43
PMCID: PMC2964546  PMID: 20937162
12.  Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects 
Nutrition Journal  2009;8:26.
Background
The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects.
Methods
Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal.
Results
No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test.
Conclusion
The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread.
Trial registration
NCT00779298
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-26
PMCID: PMC2704233  PMID: 19531257
13.  A compare between myocardial topical negative pressure levels of -25 mmHg and -50 mmHg in a porcine model 
Background
Topical negative pressure (TNP), widely used in wound therapy, is known to stimulate wound edge blood flow, granulation tissue formation, angiogenesis, and revascularization. We have previously shown that application of a TNP of -50 mmHg to the myocardium significantly increases microvascular blood flow in the underlying tissue. We have also shown that a myocardial TNP levels between -75 mmHg and -150 mmHg do not induce microvascular blood flow changes in the underlying myocardium. The present study was designed to elucidate the difference between -25 mmHg and -50 mmHg TNP on microvascular flow in normal and ischemic myocardium.
Methods
Six pigs underwent median sternotomy. The microvascular blood flow in the myocardium was recorded before and after the application of TNP using laser Doppler flowmetry. Analyses were performed before left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion (normal myocardium), and after 20 minutes of LAD occlusion (ischemic myocardium).
Results
A TNP of -25 mmHg significantly increased microvascular blood flow in both normal (from 263.3 ± 62.8 PU before, to 380.0 ± 80.6 PU after TNP application, * p = 0.03) and ischemic myocardium (from 58.8 ± 17.7 PU before, to 85.8 ± 20.9 PU after TNP application, * p = 0.04). A TNP of -50 mmHg also significantly increased microvascular blood flow in both normal (from 174.2 ± 20.8 PU before, to 240.0 ± 34.4 PU after TNP application, * p = 0.02) and ischemic myocardium (from 44.5 ± 14.0 PU before, to 106.2 ± 26.6 PU after TNP application, ** p = 0.01).
Conclusion
Topical negative pressure of -25 mmHg and -50 mmHg both induced a significant increase in microvascular blood flow in normal and in ischemic myocardium. The increase in microvascular blood flow was larger when using -25 mmHg on normal myocardium, and was larger when using -50 mmHg on ischemic myocardium; however these differences were not statistically significant.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-8-14
PMCID: PMC2467401  PMID: 18570679
14.  The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects 
Nutrition Journal  2008;7:12.
Background
Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar) in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar) on gastric emptying rate (GER), postprandial blood glucose and satiety.
Methods
Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose <6.1 mmol/l or plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l as an inclusion criterion. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of the various meals. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose was measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal.
Results
The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher (<0.05) satiety than the wholemeal wheat bread and white wheat bread with vinegar and the reference bread. Wheat fiber present in the wholemeal wheat bread, or the presence of wheat kernels per se, did not affect the postprandial blood glucose or GER significantly compared with white wheat bread, neither did the addition of vinegar to white bread affect these variables. There was no correlation found between the satiety with antral areas or GER
Conclusion
The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response.
Trial registration
NTR1116
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-12
PMCID: PMC2383922  PMID: 18439313
15.  Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study 
BMC Gastroenterology  2007;7:46.
Background
Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients.
Methods
Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2.
Results
The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control.
Trial registration number
ISRCTN33841495.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-7-46
PMCID: PMC2245945  PMID: 18093343
16.  Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial 
Nutrition Journal  2007;6:22.
Background
Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects.
Methods
Gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1), cereal bran flakes (GER2) or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3).
Results
The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023). The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045) and 120 min (p = 0.023) after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned.
Conclusion
The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy subjects, they should be considered equivalent in this respect.
Trial registration
ISRCTN90535566
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-22
PMCID: PMC2031888  PMID: 17875200

Results 1-16 (16)