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1.  Localized Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis Constricting the Terminal Ileum—An Unusual Appearance Requiring Surgical Intervention 
♦ Background: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). It is characterized by encapsulation of the bowel, causing symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Exclusive involvement of parts of the bowel may occur and may be more common than previously thought. Our main objective was to investigate and report on patients with localized EPS.
♦ Methods: Between July 2002 and December 2011, 9 of 17 EPS patients were referred to our department of surgery for a diagnostic laparotomy. Three of the 9 cases showed localized encapsulation of the small bowel and were selected for the purpose of this study.
♦ Results: All 3 patients presented with an acute inflammatory state and symptoms of bowel obstruction. In 2 patients, EPS became clinically overt after kidney transplantation; the third patient was diagnosed while on hemodialysis. All shared a history of PD ranging from 31 to 101 months. In none of the patients was radiologic examination conclusive, although 2 showed peritoneal thickening and ascites. Each patient underwent laparotomy, confirming EPS. In all cases, a thickened peritoneal membrane became apparent, predominantly covering the ileocecal region of the intestine. In addition, a constrictive membrane at the level of the terminal ileum was noted. In 2 cases, the patients underwent enterolysis and dissection of the constricting fibrotic peritoneal membrane (peritonectomy) without bowel resection. The 3rd patient was managed with parenteral nutrition and tamoxifen. The postoperative course in 1 patient was complicated by infected ascites that resolved with antibiotic treatment. Eventually, all patients were doing well, with adequate oral intake and without the need for repeat surgery.
♦ Conclusions: Localized EPS may be more common than previously thought. It has a predilection for the level of the terminal ileum. We believe that an elective diagnostic laparotomy should be considered early, because this procedure offers both diagnostic opportunities and therapeutic options. Localized EPS cases may benefit most from enterolysis and peritonectomy.
doi:10.3747/pdi.2012.00105
PMCID: PMC3797668  PMID: 23733660
Localized EPS; laparotomy; terminal ileum
2.  Laparoscopic versus Open Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56351.
Background
Peritoneal dialysis is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. Key to successful peritoneal dialysis is a well-functioning catheter. The different insertion techniques may be of great importance. Mostly, the standard operative approach is the open technique; however, laparoscopic insertion is increasingly popular. Catheter malfunction is reported up to 35% for the open technique and up to 13% for the laparoscopic technique. However, evidence is lacking to definitely conclude that the laparoscopic approach is to be preferred. This review and meta-analysis was carried out to investigate if one of the techniques is superior to the other.
Methods
Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2012, issue 10). Reference lists were searched manually. The methodology was in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for interventional systematic reviews, and written based on the PRISMA-statement.
Results
Three randomized controlled trials and eight cohort studies were identified. Nine postoperative outcome measures were meta-analyzed; of these, seven were not different between operation techniques. Based on the meta-analysis, the proportion of migrating catheters was lower (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.63; P = 0.006), and the one-year catheter survival was higher in the laparoscopic group (OR 3.93, CI 1.80 to 8.57; P = 0.0006).
Conclusions
Based on these results there is some evidence in favour of the laparoscopic insertion technique for having a higher one-year catheter survival and less migration, which would be clinically relevant.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056351
PMCID: PMC3574153  PMID: 23457554
3.  Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion, the LOCI-trial: a study protocol 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:35.
Background
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. It allows patients more freedom to perform daily activities compared to haemodialysis. Key to successful PD is the presence of a well-functioning dialysis catheter. Several complications, such as in- and outflow obstruction, peritonitis, exit-site infections, leakage and migration, can lead to catheter removal and loss of peritoneal access. Currently, different surgical techniques are in practice for PD-catheter placement. The type of insertion technique used may greatly influence the occurrence of complications. In the literature, up to 35% catheter failure has been described when using the open technique and only 13% for the laparoscopic technique. However, a well-designed randomized controlled trial is lacking.
Methods/Design
The LOCI-trial is a multi-center randomized controlled, single-blind trial (pilot). The study compares the laparoscopic with the open technique for PD catheter insertion. The primary objective is to determine the optimum placement technique in order to minimize the incidence of catheter malfunction at 6 weeks postoperatively. Secondary objectives are to determine the best approach to optimize catheter function and to study the quality of life at 6 months postoperatively comparing the two operative techniques.
Discussion
This study will generate evidence on any benefits of laparoscopic versus open PD catheter insertion.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register NTR2878
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-35
PMCID: PMC3266194  PMID: 22185091

Results 1-3 (3)