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1.  Three-dimensional evaluation of postoperative swelling in treatment of zygomatic bone fractures using two different cooling therapy methods: a randomized, observer-blind, prospective study 
Trials  2013;14:238.
Background
Surgical treatment and complications in patients with zygomatic bone fractures can lead to a significant degree of tissue trauma resulting in common postoperative symptoms and types of pain, facial swelling and functional impairment. Beneficial effects of local cold treatment on postoperative swelling, edema, pain, inflammation, and hemorrhage, as well as the reduction of metabolism, bleeding and hematomas, have been described.
The aim of this study was to compare postoperative cooling therapy applied through the use of cooling compresses with the water-circulating cooling face mask manufactured by Hilotherm in terms of beneficial impact on postoperative facial swelling, pain, eye motility, diplopia, neurological complaints and patient satisfaction.
Methods
Forty-two patients were selected for treatment of unilateral zygomatic bone fractures and were divided randomly to one of two treatments: either a Hilotherm cooling face mask or conventional cooling compresses. Cooling was initiated as soon as possible after surgery until postoperative day 3 and was applied continuously for 12 hours daily. Facial swelling was quantified through a three-dimensional optical scanning technique. Furthermore, pain, neurological complaints, eye motility, diplopia and patient satisfaction were observed for each patient.
Results
Patients receiving a cooling therapy by Hilotherm demonstrated significantly less facial swelling, less pain, reduced limitation of eye motility and diplopia, fewer neurological complaints and were more satisfied compared to patients receiving conventional cooling therapy.
Conclusions
Hilotherapy is more efficient in managing postoperative swelling and pain after treatment of unilateral zygomatic bone fractures than conventional cooling.
Trial registration
German Clinical Trials Register ID: DRKS00004846
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-238
PMCID: PMC3729713  PMID: 23895539
Zygomatic bone fracture; Three-dimensional optical scanner; Hilotherm; Conventional cooling
2.  Orbital lymphoma: diagnostic approach and treatment outcome 
Background
Lymphomas of the orbit and orbital adnexae are rare tumors, comprising only 1% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The majority of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the orbit are extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Because of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, some diagnostic delay may occur. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic approach in orbital lymphomas and to analyze their treatment outcome.
Methods
In the period from 2005 to 2012, from a group of 135 patients with tumors of the orbit, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with orbital lymphoma. This patient cohort was reviewed retrospectively.
Results
The patient group consisted of 11 patients (seven females, male males) with a median age of 57.7 years (range 42 to 88 years). Orbital swelling, pain and motility impairment were the leading clinical symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy. Depending on the anatomic location of the tumor, a surgical biopsy was taken using a blepharoplasty incision, a lateral orbitotomy or a navigation-guided biopsy. The predominant histology was extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (82%). All patients underwent complete clinical staging. These were clinical stage IEA in seven patients, and stages IIEA (n = 2) and IIIEA (n = 2) in four patients . Patients in stage IEA were treated with radiation therapy alone, with radiation doses between 25 and 40 Gy, and patients with stage IIEA received systemic chemotherapy with bendamustin/rituximab. Those two patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma received systemic chemotherapy according to the R-CHOP protocol.
Conclusions
Owing to unspecific clinical symptoms, some diagnostic delay may occur in orbital lymphoma. If unspecific orbital symptoms are present, adequate imaging studies followed by early surgical biopsy will contribute to early diagnosis. Once diagnosis is established and staging is complete, radiation therapy is the recommended treatment for stage IEA patients. Systemic chemotherapy is indicated in selected stage IIEA patients and in patients with stage IIIEA disease.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-73
PMCID: PMC3616859  PMID: 23506357
Orbital lymphoma; Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Radiotherapy
3.  Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with piezosurgery versus oscillating saw and chisel osteotomy - a randomized prospective trial 
Trials  2013;14:49.
Background
Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional sharp instruments used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because of its precision and safety. The piezosurgery medical device allows the efficient cutting of mineralized tissues with minimal trauma to soft tissues. Piezoelectric osteotome has found its role in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), a procedure well established to correct transverse maxillary discrepancies. The advantages include minimal risk to critical anatomic structures. The purpose of this clinical comparative study (CIS 2007-237-M) was to present the advantages of the piezoelectric cut as a minimally invasive device in surgically assisted, rapid maxillary expansion by protecting the maxillary sinus mucosal lining.
Methods
Thirty patients (18 females and 12 males) at the age of 18 to 54 underwent a surgically assisted palatal expansion of the maxilla with a combined orthodontic and surgical approach. The patients were randomly divided into two separate treatment groups. While Group 1 received conventional surgery using an oscillating saw, Group 2 was treated with piezosurgery. The following parameters were examined: blood pressure, blood values, required medication, bleeding level in the maxillary sinus, duration of inpatient stay, duration of surgery and height of body temperature.
Results
The results displayed no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding laboratory blood values and inpatient stay. The duration of surgery revealed a significant discrepancy. Deploying piezosurgery took the surgeon an average of 10 minutes longer than working with a conventional-saw technique. However, the observation of the bleeding level in the paranasal sinus presented a major and statistically significant advantage of piezosurgery: on average the bleeding level was one category above the one of the remaining patients.
Conclusion
This method of piezoelectric surgery with all its advantages is going to replace many conventional operating procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Trial registration
CIS 2007-237-M
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-49
PMCID: PMC3608968  PMID: 23414112
Maxillary expansion; Piezosurgery; Saw; Neurologic; Pain
4.  Assessment of cervical lymph node metastasis for therapeutic decision-making in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: a prospective clinical analysis 
Background
Cervical metastasis has a tremendous impact on the prognosis in patients with carcinomas of the head and neck and the frequency of such spread is greater than 20% for most squamous cell carcinomas. With emerging evidence, focus is shifting to conservative neck procedures aimed at achieving good shoulder function without compromising oncologic safety. The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of nodal metastasis in patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa.
Materials and methods
This was a prospective clinical analysis of patients who were histologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal cavity and clinically N1 and had not received treatment anywhere else. Patients were analyzed for age and sex distribution, tumor staging, location, and metastasis.
Results
The incidence of metastatic lymph node in T4 (n=44) was the highest, that is, level I was 100% (44/44), level II was 43.18% (19/44), level III was 15.90% (7/44), and level IV was 4.5% (2/44). Level V was free of metastasis. Among T3 (n=10) lesions, incidence of metastasis in level I was 100% (10/10), level II was 20% (2/10), and level III, IV, and V were free of metastasis. Among T2 (n=6) lesions, incidence of lymph node metastasis in level I was 100% (6/6) and all other levels of lymph nodes were found free of metastasis.
Conclusion
Lymphatic spread from carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is low. Involvement of level IV is seen in only 3% of patients. A more conservative approach to the neck in patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is recommended.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-253
PMCID: PMC3514153  PMID: 23173732
Squamous cell carcinoma; Prognosis; Oral cavity; Buccal mucosa; Lymph node metastasis
5.  Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx in patients less than 40 years of age: a 20-year analysis 
Head & Neck Oncology  2012;4:28.
Background
Squamous cell carcinoma mainly afflicts patients older than 40 years of age however, few cases are seen in younger patients. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients less than 40 years of age with a view to assessing the prognosis over a period of time.
Methods
This was a 20 years retrospective review of patients who were histologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx at the Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery of the Hannover Medical School, Germany and had not received treatment anywhere else. Records of these patients were analysed for age and sex distribution, tumour staging and differentiation, location, treatment given, recurrences and metastasis, time between diagnosis and death or last contact with patient, and possible cause of death. Comparisons were also made with patients older than 40 years of age.
Results and discussion
A total of 977 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx in the 20-year period of this study were included. Thirty eight (3.9 %) of the overall patient population were under 40 years of age. Among these, 30 (78.9%) were males and 8 (21.1%) were females. The incidence was highest in the 30–39 year age group accounting for 31 (81.6%) of the 38 patients. The moderately differentiated carcinoma was commonest (24; 63.2%). The floor of the mouth had the highest number of tumours (15; 39.5%), but none was seen in the oropharynx. Surgery alone was the main stay of treatment given to 26 (68.4%) patients. At the end of the study period, 13 (34.2%) patients had died of the tumour and the 5-year survival rate was 66.2%. In the older patient group (>40 years), 42.7% died from the tumour and the 5-year survival rate was 57.6%.
Conclusion
The results from the present study showed that young adults may have a better prognosis especially in terms of long term overall survival from oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-4-28
PMCID: PMC3414801  PMID: 22647235
Squamous cell carcinoma; Prognosis; Oral cavity; Oropharynx; Young adults
6.  Surgical treatment of zygomatic bone fracture using two points fixation versus three point fixation-a randomised prospective clinical trial 
Trials  2012;13:36.
Background
The zygoma plays an important role in the facial contour for both cosmetic and functional reasons; therefore zygomatic bone injuries should be properly diagnosed and adequately treated. Comparison of various surgical approaches and their complications can only be done objectively using outcome measurements which in turn require protocol management and long-term follow up. The preference for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic fractures at three points has continued to grow in response to observations of inadequate results from two point and one point fixation techniques.
The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of zygomatic bone after treatment with ORIF using 2 point fixation and ORIF using 3 point fixation and compare the outcome of two procedures.
Methods
100 patients were randomly divided equally into two groups. In group A, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using two point fixation by miniplates and in group B, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using three point fixation by miniplates. They were evaluated for their complications during and after surgery with their advantages and disadvantages and the difference between the two groups was observed.
Results
A total of 100 fractures were sustained. We found that postoperative complication like decreased malar height and vertical dystopia was more common in those patients who were treated by two point fixation than those who were treated with three point fixation.
Conclusions
Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation using three point fixation by miniplates is the best available method for the treatment zygomatic bone fractures.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-36
PMCID: PMC3348042  PMID: 22497773
Zygomatic fracture; Open reduction; Internal fixation; Three point fixation; Two point fixation
7.  Designing the ideal model for assessment of wound contamination after gunshot injuries: a comparative experimental study 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:6.
Background
Modern high-velocity projectiles produce temporary cavities and can thus cause extensive tissue destruction along the bullet path. It is still unclear whether gelatin blocks, which are used as a well-accepted tissue simulant, allow the effects of projectiles to be adequately investigated and how these effects are influenced by caliber size.
Method
Barium titanate particles were distributed throughout a test chamber for an assessment of wound contamination. We fired .22-caliber Magnum bullets first into gelatin blocks and then into porcine hind limbs placed behind the chamber. Two other types of bullets (.222-caliber bullets and 6.5 × 57 mm cartridges) were then shot into porcine hind limbs. Permanent and temporary wound cavities as well as the spatial distribution of barium titanate particles in relation to the bullet path were evaluated radiologically.
Results
A comparison of the gelatin blocks and hind limbs showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the mean results for all parameters. There were significant differences between the bullets of different calibers in the depth to which barium titanate particles penetrated the porcine hind limbs. Almost no particles, however, were found at a penetration depth of 10 cm or more. By contrast, gas cavities were detected along the entire bullet path.
Conclusion
Gelatin is only of limited value for evaluating the path of high-velocity projectiles and the contamination of wounds by exogenous particles. There is a direct relationship between the presence of gas cavities in the tissue along the bullet path and caliber size. These cavities, however, are only mildly contaminated by exogenous particles.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-6
PMCID: PMC3342864  PMID: 22490236
Forensic science; Wound infection; Gunshot; Projectile; Gelatin
8.  Myxolipoma in the tongue - A clinical case report and review of the literature 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:50.
In this article, we present our experience with a case of myxolipoma of the tongue.
Lipoma is a mesenchymal benign tumor occurring with relatively high frequency. However, myxolipoma, one of the histological variant of lipoma characterized by mature adipose tissue and abundant mucoid substances, in the oral cavity is quite rare.
The patient was a 52-year-old man who noticed a painless mass on the left border of tongue about 2 years ago. The lesion was noted at a complete medical checkup, and the patient was admitted to our institution for detailed examination. The mass was a palpable, soft and elastic nodule, 15 mm in diameter, covered with normal mucosa in the left inferior aspect of the tongue. The border of the tumor was well-defined, and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fat density within the mass. On the basis of these finding, the tumor was clinically diagnosed as lipoma and was excised under general anesthesia. Histopathologically, the tumor was a well-defined lobulated mass surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule within the muscle of the tongue. The tumor was diagnosed as myxolipoma because it was consisted of solid proliferation of mature adipocytes replaced by abundant mucoid substances. The post operative course was uneventful, and there was no evidence of recurrence 4 years after surgery.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-50
PMCID: PMC3259069  PMID: 22185472
Myxolipoma; Tongue benign tumor; Lipoma
9.  Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique 
Head & Face Medicine  2011;7:21.
A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-7-21
PMCID: PMC3226644  PMID: 22070833
Computer-assisted surgery; rapid prototyping; ondontogenic lesion
10.  A new model for the characterization of infection risk in gunshot injuries:Technology, principal consideration and clinical implementation 
Head & Face Medicine  2011;7:18.
Introduction
The extent of wound contamination in gunshot injuries is still a topic of controversial debate. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model that illustrates the contamination of wounds with exogenous particles along the bullet path.
Material and methods
To simulate bacteria, radio-opaque barium titanate (3-6 μm in diameter) was atomized in a dust chamber. Full metal jacket or soft point bullets caliber .222 (n = 12, v0 = 1096 m/s) were fired through the chamber into a gelatin block directly behind it. After that, the gelatin block underwent multi-slice CT in order to analyze the permanent and temporary wound cavity.
Results
The permanent cavity caused by both types of projectiles showed deposits of barium titanate distributed over the entire bullet path. Full metal jacket bullets left only few traces of barium titanate in the temporary cavity. In contrast, the soft point bullets disintegrated completely, and barium titanate covered the entire wound cavity.
Discussion
Deep penetration of potential exogenous bacteria can be simulated easily and reproducibly with barium titanate particles shot into a gelatin block. Additionally, this procedure permits conclusions to be drawn about the distribution of possible contaminants and thus can yield essential findings in terms of necessary therapeutic procedures.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-7-18
PMCID: PMC3213150  PMID: 22032229
gunshot; infection; basic research; radiology
11.  Modern surgical management of tongue carcinoma - A clinical retrospective research over a 12 years period 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:43.
Objectives
In this retrospective study, we present a clinical review of our experience with tongue cancer in order to obtain valid criteria for therapeutic decision-making.
Materials and methods
Between August 1999 and June 2011, a total of 398 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Edward Medical University Lahore Pakistan. Data concerning patient characteristics, clinical and pathologic tumour characteristics and treatment strategies and their results were obtained from a retrospective review of medical records. The average follow-up was 4.6 years. Statistical analysis for survival was calculated by the method of Kaplan and Meier.
Results
There were 398 total patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.5 years,. 224 (56.3%) were male and 174 (43.7%) female (male/female ratio = 1.3:1).332/398 patients received surgical treatment, whereas 66 patients were excluded from surgical treatment and received primary radio (chemo) therapy after biopsy. Tongue carcinoma patients treated by non surgical treatment modalities had 5 years survival rate of 45.5% and patients with surgical intervention had survival rate of 96.1%.
Conclusions
We recommend categorical bilateral neck dissection in order to reliably remove occult lymph node metastases. Adjuvant treatment modalities should be applied more frequently in controlled clinical trials and should generally be implemented in cases with unclear margins and lymphatic spread.
Clinical relevance
This study provides modern treatment strategies for the tongue carcinoma.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-43
PMCID: PMC3197558  PMID: 21955553
tongue cancer; squamous cell carcinoma; resection; survival; prognostic factors
12.  Orbital metastases as first sign of metastatic spread in breast cancer: Case report and review of the literature 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:37.
Background
Intraorbital metastases of breast cancer is rare with only 3-10% of all ocular metastases. We report a case of orbital metastases as first sign of systemic metastatic spread in a female patient with breast cancer.
Methods
The patient had been diagnosed with breast cancer 3 years before. Her present complain was local pain, diplopia and periorbital swelling. A CT scan revealed extensive bony destruction of the orbital roof/anterior skull base. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated additional uptake at the level of the skull base, cervical spine, ilium and ribs suggesting metastatic spread to the skeleton. A navigation-assisted intraorbital biopsy from the orbital roof revealed a metastasis of breast cancer. With the confirmed diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer the patient was refered to the oncologist for further tumor staging. As further treatment she received systemic palliative chemotherapy in addition to intravenous treatment with bisphosphonates.
Conclusion
In patients with a previous history of breast cancer who complain even of mild ophthalmologic symptoms such as local pain, periorbital edema, it is important to consider ocular or orbital metastatic disease. Adequate 3D-Imaging followed by a biopsy will usually confirm the diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-37
PMCID: PMC3184093  PMID: 21859452
Orbital metastasis; breast cancer; navigation-assisted surgery
13.  Effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation and postoperative radiotherapy on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in head and neck vessels 
Background
Preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer result in changes to the vessels that are used to construct microsurgical anastomoses. The aim of the study was to investigate quantitative changes and HSP70 expression of irradiated neck recipient vessels and transplant vessels used for microsurgical anastomoses.
Methods
Of 20 patients included in this study five patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation, another five received conventional radiotherapy and 10 patients where treated without previous radiotherapy. During surgical procedure, vessel specimens where obtained by the surgeon. Immunhistochemical staining of HSP70 was performed and quantitative measurement and evaluation of HSP70 was carried out.
Results
Conventional radiation and neoadjuvant chemoradiation revealed in a thickening of the intima layer of recipient vessels. A increased expression of HSP70 could be detected in the media layer of the recipient veins as well as in the transplant veins of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Radiation and chemoradiation decreased the HSP70 expression of the intima layer in recipient arteries. Conventional radiation led to a decrease of HSP70 expression in the media layer of recipient arteries.
Conclusion
Our results showed that anticancer drugs can lead to a thickening of the intima layer of transplant and recipient veins and also increase the HSP70 expression in the media layer of the recipient vessels. In contrast, conventional radiation decreased the HSP70 expression in the intima layer of arteries and the media layer of recipient arteries and veins. Comparing these results with wall thickness, it was concluded, that high levels of HSP70 may prevent the intima layer of arteries and the media layer of vein from thickening.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-6-81
PMCID: PMC3146838  PMID: 21745403
14.  Reconstruction of oral mucosal defects using the nasolabial flap: clinical experience with 22 patients 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:28.
Background
Various surgical options are available for reconstruction of intraoral soft tissue defects. For smaller defects of the oral mucosa in different anatomic locations of the oral cavity the nasolabial flap is a very useful and simple alternative to other pedicled flaps and free flaps.
Methods
The results of reconstruction of oral mucosal defects or facial skin defects using 29 nasolabial flaps in 22 patients were reviewed retrospectively.
Results
The patient group consisted of 16 patients (70%) with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, 2 patients (10%) with cystic lesions of the maxilla, 3 patients (15%) with osteonecrosis of the jaw, and 1 patient with an oral metastasis of a lung carcinoma. Healing was uneventful in 93%, partial or complete flap loss was observed in 7%.
Conclusions
The nasolabial flap is a valuable alternative for reconstruction of smaller defects of the oral cavity in particular in older and medically compromised patients.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-28
PMCID: PMC3121716  PMID: 21605443
nasolabial flap; intraoral reconstruction; local flap
15.  Prognostic significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in patients with oral cancer 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:10.
Backround
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by an aggressive growth pattern, local invasiveness, and spread to cervical lymph nodes. Overall survival rates have not improved, primarily due to locoregional tumor recurrences and distant metastasis. To date, no trustworthy or clinically applicable marker of tumor aggressiveness has been identified for OSCC. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a role in tumor antigenicity. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of highly stress-inducible HSP70 in OSCC.
Methods
Immunohistochemical staining for HSP70 was performed on surgical specimens obtained from 61 patients with OSCC. Light microscopy and analysis 3.1® (Soft Imaging System, Münster, Germany), an image processing and analysis program, were used for evaluating HSP70 expression. The tumor region was defined as the region of interest (ROI) and HSP70-positive staining was analyzed.
Results
Immunoreactivity for HSP70 was positive in tumor cells of 38 of all patients (63.3%). Positive immunoreactivity of tumor cells could be detected in 17 of 28 patients with T2 tumors (60.7%) Prognostic significance of HSP70 expression in tumor cells was detected in patients with T2 tumors (p = 0.009).
Conclusions
The survival of patients suffering from T2 tumors with positive HSP70 expression was 8 times higher than that for patients with negative HSP70 expression, suggesting that T1-T2 tumors of OSCC with low expression of HSP70 require more radical treatment.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-10
PMCID: PMC3055850  PMID: 21345207
16.  Optic Nerve Monitoring 
Orbital and anterior skull base surgery is generally performed close to the prechiasmatic visual pathway, and clear strategies for detecting and handling visual pathway damage are essential. To overcome the common problem of a missed clinical examination because of an uncooperative or unresponsive patient, flash visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms should be used. These electrophysiologic examination techniques can provide evidence of intact, pathologic, or absent conductivity of the visual pathway when clinical assessment is not feasible. Visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms are thus essential diagnostic procedures not only for primary diagnosis but also for intraoperative evaluation. A decision for or against treatment of a visual pathway injury has to be made as fast as possible due to the enormous importance of the time elapsed with such injuries; this can be achieved additionally using multislice spiral computed tomography. The first-line conservative treatment of choice for such injuries is megadose methylprednisolone therapy. Surgery is used to decompress the orbital compartment by exposure of the intracanalicular part of the optic nerve in the case of optic canal compression. Modern craniomaxillofacial surgery requires detailed consideration of the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic visual pathway damage with the ultimate goal of preserving visual acuity.
doi:10.1055/s-0033-1343783
PMCID: PMC3721018  PMID: 24436741
optic nerve trauma; visual pathway damage; flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs); megadose methylprednisolone; optic nerve decompression
17.  A systematic examination of the bone destruction pattern of the two-shot technique 
Introduction:
The two-shot technique is an effective stopping power method. The precise mechanisms of action on the bone and soft-tissue structures of the skull; however, remain largely unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the terminal ballistics of the two-shot and single-shot techniques.
Materials and Methods:
40 fresh pigs’ heads were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Either a single shot or two shots were fired at each head with a full metal jacket or a semi-jacketed bullet. Using thin-layer computed tomography and photography, the diameter of the destruction pattern and the fractures along the bullet path were then imaged and assessed.
Results:
A single shot fired with a full metal jacket bullet causes minor lateral destruction along the bullet path. With two shots fired with a full metal jacket bullet, however, the maximum diameter of the bullet path is significantly greater (P < 0.05) than it is with a single shot fired with a full metal jacket bullet. In contrast, the maximum diameter with a semi-jacketed bullet is similar with the single-shot and two-shot techniques.
Conclusion:
With the two-shot technique, a full metal jacket bullet causes a destruction pattern that is comparable to that of a single shot fired with a semi-jacketed bullet.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.130879
PMCID: PMC4013744  PMID: 24812454
Ballistics; full metal jacket; two-shot technique
18.  Pathophysiology of Barodontalgia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2012;2012:453415.
Changes in ambient pressure occur during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy and can cause different types of pathophysiological conditions and pain including toothache (barodontalgia). We report the case of a patient with severe pain in the region of his mandibular left first molar, which had been satisfactorily restored with a conservative restoration. Pain occurred during an airplane flight and persisted after landing. Radiology revealed a periapical radiolucency in the region of the distal root apex. Pain relief was achieved only after endodontic treatment. On the basis of this paper, we investigated the aetiology and management of barodontalgia. Dentists should advise patients to avoid exposure to pressure changes until all necessary surgical, conservative, and prosthetic procedures have been completed. The influence of pressure divergences should be noted at any time. Under changed environment pressures may be the changing perception of pathologies.
doi:10.1155/2012/453415
PMCID: PMC3518957  PMID: 23243520
19.  In Vitro Effects of External Pressure Changes on the Sealing Ability under Simulated Diving Conditions 
ISRN Dentistry  2012;2012:418609.
Aim. To measure and validate the permeability of pressure changes in correlation to different root filling techniques. Methods. Eighty extracted single-rooted teeth were randomly assigned to one of eight groups of ten teeth. Following standardized instrumentation and irrigation, root canal fillings were performed using either cold lateral condensation, a warm carrier-based gutta-percha obturation technique, a warm carrier-based Resilon, or warm gutta-percha compaction with the downpack/backfill technique. After insertion of a pressure sensor within the pulp chamber ten teeth of each group then underwent simulated dives with pressure measurement and the other ten a dye penetration test during simulated dives to 5.0 bar. Differences were analyzed statistically (P < 0.05) using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results. When the warm carrier-based gutta-percha obturation technique and vertical gutta-percha obturation techniques were used, there was significant lower intrapulpal pressure to experimental chamber pressure (P > 0.05). When cold lateral condensation or carrier-based Resilon as used, pressure was sometimes almost completely equalized. Conclusions. Warm gutta-percha obturation techniques provide a largely pressure-tight seal whereas the Resilon obturation technique and cold lateral condensation appear to be unsuitable to pressure changes.
doi:10.5402/2012/418609
PMCID: PMC3478745  PMID: 23119172
20.  Piezoelectric-assisted removal of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible: An innovative technique for prevention of dentoalveolar nerve injury 
Head & Face Medicine  2011;7:20.
In this article, we present our experience with a piezoelectric-assisted surgical device by resection of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible.
A 41 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of slowly progressive right buccal swelling. After further radiographic diagnosis surgical removal of the yellowish-white mass was performed. Histologic analysis showed proliferating histiocytic cells with foamy, granular cytoplasm and no signs of malignancy. The tumor was positive for CD68 and vimentin in immunohistochemical staining. Therefore the tumor was diagnosed as primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. This work provides a new treatment device for benign mandibular tumour disease. By using a novel piezoelectric-assisted cutting device, protection of the dentoalveolar nerve could be achieved.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-7-20
PMCID: PMC3213176  PMID: 22040611
Piezosurgery; benign fibrous histiocytoma; mandibular tumor; dentoalveolar nerve; atraumatic bone surgery
21.  Pre-operative planning for mandibular reconstruction - A full digital planning workflow resulting in a patient specific reconstruction 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:45.
Objectives
Reconstruction of large mandiblular defects following ablative oncologic surgery could be done by using vascularized bone transfer or, more often, primarily with simultaneous or delayed bone grafting, using load bearing reconstruction plates. Bending of these reconstruction plates is typically directed along the outer contour of the original mandible. Simultaneously or in a second operation vascularized or non-vascularized bone is fixed to the reconstruction plate. However, the prosthodontic-driven backward planning to ease bony reconstruction of the mandible in terms of dental rehabilitation using implant-retained overdentures might be an eligible solution. The purpose of this work was to develop, establish and clinically evaluate a novel 3D planning procedure for mandibular reconstruction.
Materials and methods
Three patients with tumors involving the mandible, which included squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of the mouth and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, were treated surgically by hemimandibulectomy.
Results
In primary alloplastic mandible reconstruction, shape and size of the reconstruction plate could be predefined and prebent prior to surgery.
Clinical relevance
This study provides modern treatment strategies for mandibular reconstruction.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-45
PMCID: PMC3195208  PMID: 21968330
Mandibular reconstruction; backward planning; patient specific implant; computer-assisted surgery
22.  Pediatric Mandibular Resection and Reconstruction: Long-Term Results with Autogenous Rib Grafts 
Reconstruction of mandibular defects following tumor resection in infants is a particular challenge. Although autogenous rib grafts have no relevance in the restoration of mandibular bone defects occurring after ablative tumor surgery due to limited bone stock and the availability of other donor areas, they are a useful surgical alternative following tumor surgery in infants. We here report on a 2, 5, 8, and 15-year follow-up of four children who were diagnosed with benign tumors of the mandible with osseous destruction at the age of 4, 6, 15, and 18 months, respectively. Histologic diagnoses were melanotic neuroectodermal tumor (n = 2), hemangioendothelioma of the mandible (n = 1), and ameloblastoma (n = 1). Following continuity resection of the mandible, lateromandibular bone defects were restored using autogenous rib grafts. Both clinical and radiologic follow-up visits were performed for all children to assess growth of the facial skeleton and the mandible. One child was already further reconstructed using bone augmentation at the age of 15 years. Cephalometric measurements on panorex films and three-dimensional computed tomographic scans revealed a slight vertical growth excess and transversal growth inhibition of the reconstructed mandible compared with the nonoperated side. Although further growth of rib grafts is difficult to predict and occlusal disharmony may occur due to physiologic maxillary growth and growth of the unaffected mandible, we believe that autogenous rib grafts can be ideally used for the restoration of mandibular continuity defects in newborns and young children. Clinical follow-up visits on a yearly basis and orthodontic controls are useful for early orthodontic treatment of growth deficits. Further corrective surgery with bone augmentation or osseous distraction is required following completion of growth of the facial skeleton.
doi:10.1055/s-0030-1249371
PMCID: PMC3052664  PMID: 22110815
Mandibular reconstruction; rib graft; facial growth; bone graft; pediatric maxillofacial tumor
23.  Quantification of histological changes after calibrated crush of the intraorbital optic nerve in rats 
Background: Traumatic optic nerve lesions (TONL) are probable but unpredictable consequence after severe midface or skull base trauma. Based on a previously described rat model, the authors developed a new model in order to simulate optic nerve crush during trauma on the optic canal.
Methods: To achieve a calibrated TONL, a microinjuring device was designed that made it possible to assess the correlation between a defined trauma and the neuronal degeneration in the rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. This device is based on a small dynamometer mounted onto a conventional micromanipulator. The supraorbital approach was chosen to expose the extracranial optic nerve.
Results: In this rat model (n=100, Wistar strain) the parameters of “force” and “time” could be precisely monitored during the experiment. The decrease in the mean number of retinal neurons (N) according to the pressure exerted (2–30 cN•mm−2) on the optic nerve was linear for 1, 6, and 15 minutes of injuring time; the decrease in N for varying injuring forces also appears to be nearly linear.
Conclusion: The results show that this model provides a reliable method for studying quantitatively the anatomical effects of TONL on the RGC layer and the optic nerve itself, and may allow the design of treatment strategies following TONL.
PMCID: PMC1771007  PMID: 11815353
calibrated crush; optic nerve trauma; retinal ganglion cells; degeneration; rat
24.  Functional features of cancer stem cells in melanoma cell lines 
Background
Recent evidence suggests a subset of cells within a tumor with "stem-like" characteristics. These cells are able to transplant tumors in immunodeficient hosts. Distinct from non-malignant stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSC) show low proliferative rates, high self-renewing capacity, propensity to differentiate into actively proliferating tumor cells, and resistance to chemotherapy or radiation. They are often characterized by elevated expression of stem cell surface markers, in particular CD133, and sets of differentially expressed stem cell-associated genes. CSC are usually rare in clinical specimens and hardly amenable to functional studies and gene expression profiling. In this study, a panel of heterogenous melanoma cell lines was screened for typical CSC features.
Methods
Nine heterogeneous metastatic melanoma cell lines including D10 and WM115 were studied. Cell lines were phenotyped using flow cytometry and clonogenic assays were performed by limiting dilution analysis on magnetically sorted cells. Spheroidal growth was investigated in pretreated flasks. Gene expression profiles were assessed by using real-time rt-PCR and DNA microarrays. Magnetically sorted tumor cells were subcutaneously injected into the flanks of immunodeficient mice. Comparative immunohistochemistry was performed on xenografts and primary human melanoma sections.
Results
D10 cells expressed CD133 with a significantly higher clonogenic capacity as compared to CD133- cells. Na8, D10, and HBL cells formed spheroids on poly-HEMA-coated flasks. D10, Me39, RE, and WM115 cells expressed at least 2 of the 3 regulatory core transcription factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 involved in the maintenance of stemness in mesenchymal stem cells. Gene expression profiling on CD133+ and CD133- D10 cells revealed 68 up- and 47 downregulated genes (+/-1.3 fold). Two genes, MGP and PROM1 (CD133), were outstandingly upregulated. CD133+ D10 cells formed tumors in NSG mice contrary to CD133- cells and CD133 expression was detected in xenografts and primary human melanoma sections using immunohistochemistry.
Conclusions
Established melanoma cell lines exhibit, to variable extents, the typical features of CSCs. The tumorigenic cell line D10, expressing CD133 and growing in spheroids and might qualify as a potential model of melanoma CSCs.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-13-78
PMCID: PMC3765139  PMID: 23915418
Cancer stem cells; CD117; CD133; CD146; CD271; Cell lines; D10; Melanoma; WM115
25.  Precision of posttraumatic primary orbital reconstruction using individually bent titanium mesh with and without navigation: a retrospective study 
Head & Face Medicine  2013;9:18.
Background
The aim of orbital wall reconstruction is to reestablish anatomically exact orbital volumes to avoid long-term complications. Navigation could facilitate complex reconstructions.
Methods
Quality of the orbital reconstruction (n = 94) was measured based on (A) volume changes and (B) on 3D shape deviations compared to the unaffected side. Volume analysis included segmentation of the orbital cavity in the pre- and post-operative 3D data set (VoXim®, IVS Solutions, Germany), and shape analysis was performed by vector-based 3D tools (Comparison®, 3Dshape, Germany).
Results
Orbital volume of the unaffected side ranged from 26.6 ml ± 2.8 ml in male and 25.2 ml ± 2.6 ml in female (CT). Significant orbital enlargement was found in orbital fractures with involvement of the posterior third of the orbital floor and in comminuted fracture pattern. Reconstructed orbital volume ranged from 26.9 ± 2.7 ml in male and 24.26 ± 2.5 ml in female (CBCT). 3D Analysis of the color mapping showed minor deviations compared to the mirrored unaffected side.
Conclusion
Measurements demonstrate that even in comminuted orbital fractures true-to-original reconstruction is feasible.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-9-18
PMCID: PMC3750456  PMID: 23815979
Orbital fractures; Computer-assisted surgery; Orbital volume; Imaging analysis platform

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