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1.  Free Intra-Abdominal Air without Peritoneal Perforation after TEM: A Report of Two Cases 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:185429.
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive treatment modality for a variety of rectal lesions. Due to its minimally invasive nature, TEM has emerged as a safe method. Among most threatening complications are hemorrhage and peritoneal perforation. We report on two patients who demonstrated intra-abdominal free air on an erect chest X-ray after TEM procedure without other findings of a pneumoperitoneum. We hypothesize that due to the combination of elevated pressures in the retroperitoneal cavity and decreased integrity of the retroperitoneal barrier, insufflated CO2 gas can diffuse into the intraperitoneal cavity. Conservative treatment should be considered in patients with free intra-abdominal air postoperatively. However, there should be no suspicion of peritoneal entry during the procedure and the patient should be in generally good condition without severe abdominal symptoms.
doi:10.1155/2012/185429
PMCID: PMC3533606  PMID: 23346448
2.  The CARTS study: Chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer in the distal rectum followed by organ-sparing transanal endoscopic microsurgery 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:34.
Background
The CARTS study is a multicenter feasibility study, investigating the role of rectum saving surgery for distal rectal cancer.
Methods/Design
Patients with a clinical T1-3 N0 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma below 10 cm from the anal verge will receive neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (25 fractions of 2 Gy with concurrent capecitabine). Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) will be performed 8 - 10 weeks after the end of the preoperative treatment depending on the clinical response.
Primary objective is to determine the number of patients with a (near) complete pathological response after chemoradiation therapy and TEM. Secondary objectives are the local recurrence rate and quality of life after this combined therapeutic modality. A three-step analysis will be performed after 20, 33 and 55 patients to ensure the feasibility of this treatment protocol.
Discussion
The CARTS-study is one of the first prospective multicentre trials to investigate the role of a rectum saving treatment modality using chemoradiation therapy and local excision. The CARTS study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01273051)
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-34
PMCID: PMC3295682  PMID: 22171697

Results 1-2 (2)