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1.  Pit excision with phenolisation of the sinus tract versus radical excision in sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: study protocol for a single centre randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2015;16:92.
Background
Excision of the pit of the sinus with phenolisation of the sinus tract and surgical excision are two treatment modalities for patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease. Phenolisation seems to have advantages over local sinus excision as it is performed under local anaesthesia with a relatively small surgical procedure, less postoperative pain, minor risk of surgical site infection (8.7%), and only a few days being unable to perform normal activity (mean of 2.3 days). The disadvantage may be the higher risk of recurrence (13%) and the necessity to perform a second phenolisation in a subgroup of patients. Wide surgical excision of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease has a recurrence rate of 4 to 11%. The disadvantages, however, are postoperative pain, high risk of surgical site infection, and a longer period being unable to perform normal activity (mean of 10 days). The objective of this study is to show that excision of the pit of the sinus of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease with phenolisation of the sinus tract is a successful first-time treatment modality for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease accompanied by a quicker return to normal daily activity compared to local excision of the sinus.
Methods/design
Patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease will be randomly allocated to excision of the pit of the sinus followed by phenol applications of the sinus tract or radical surgical excision of the sinus. Patients are recruited from a single Dutch teaching, non-university hospital. The primary endpoint is loss of days of normal activity/working days. Secondary endpoints are anatomic recurrence rate, symptomatic recurrence rate, quality of life, surgical site infection, time to wound closure, symptoms related to treatment, pain, usage of pain medication and total treatment time. To demonstrate a reduction of return to normal activity from 7.5 days in the excision group to 4 days in the phenolisation group, with 80% power at 5% alpha, a total sample size of 100 is required.
Discussion
This study is a randomised controlled trial to provide evidence that phenolisation of the sinus tract compared to radical excision reduces the total number of days unable to perform normal activity.
Trial registration
Dutch trial register NTR4043, registered on 24 June 2013.
doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0613-5
PMCID: PMC4359780  PMID: 25872666
Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease; Surgery; Local excision; Pit excision; Phenolisation; Randomised controlled trial
2.  Transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus endoscopic mucosal resection for large rectal adenomas (TREND-study) 
BMC Surgery  2009;9:4.
Background
Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications.
The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas.
Methods/design
Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma ≥ 3 cm, located between 1–15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment.
Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2) number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3) major and minor morbidity; 4) disease specific and general quality of life; 5) anorectal function; 6) health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures.
Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR of 3.3% and considering an upper-limit of 10% for EMR to be non-inferior (beta-error 0.2 and one-sided alpha-error 0.05), 89 patients are needed per group.
Discussion
The TREND study is the first randomized trial evaluating whether TEM or EMR is more cost-effective for the treatment of large rectal adenomas.
Trial registration number
(trialregister.nl) NTR1422
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-9-4
PMCID: PMC2664790  PMID: 19284647
3.  Laparoscopic ileocolic resection versus infliximab treatment of distal ileitis in Crohn's disease: a randomized multicenter trial (LIR!C-trial) 
BMC Surgery  2008;8:15.
Background
With the availability of infliximab, nowadays recurrent Crohn's disease, defined as disease refractory to immunomodulatory agents that has been treated with steroids, is generally treated with infliximab. Infliximab is an effective but expensive treatment and once started it is unclear when therapy can be discontinued. Surgical resection has been the golden standard in recurrent Crohn's disease. Laparoscopic ileocolic resection proved to be safe and is characterized by a quick symptom reduction.
The objective of this study is to compare infliximab treatment with laparoscopic ileocolic resection in patients with recurrent Crohn's disease of the distal ileum with respect to quality of life and costs.
Methods/design
The study is designed as a multicenter randomized clinical trial including patients with Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum that require infliximab treatment following recent consensus statements on inflammatory bowel disease treatment: moderate to severe disease activity in patients that fail to respond to steroid therapy or immunomodulatory therapy. Patients will be randomized to receive either infliximab or undergo a laparoscopic ileocolic resection. Primary outcomes are quality of life and costs. Secondary outcomes are hospital stay, early and late morbidity, sick leave and surgical recurrence. In order to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire at a 5% two sided significance level with a power of 80%, a sample size of 65 patients per treatment group can be calculated. An economic evaluation will be performed by assessing the marginal direct medical, non-medical and time costs and the costs per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) will be calculated. For both treatment strategies a cost-utility ratio will be calculated. Patients will be included from December 2007.
Discussion
The LIR!C-trial is a randomized multicenter trial that will provide evidence whether infliximab treatment or surgery is the best treatment for recurrent distal ileitis in Crohn's disease.
Trial registration
Nederlands Trial Register NTR1150
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-8-15
PMCID: PMC2533646  PMID: 18721465

Results 1-3 (3)