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1.  Pain sensation in pancreatic diseases is not uniform: The different facets of pancreatic pain 
AIM: To systematically characterize specific pain patterns in the most frequent pancreatic diseases.
METHODS: Pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis (n = 314), pancreatic cancer (n = 469), and other pancreatic tumors (n = 249) including mucinous (n = 20) and serous cystadenoma (n = 31), invasive (n = 37) and non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN; n = 48), low stage (n = 18) and high stage neuroendocrine neoplasia (n = 44), and ampullary cancer (n = 51) was registered and correlated with clinicopathological data. Survival times were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients alive at the follow-up time were censored. Survival curves were compared statistically using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: Forty-nine point one percent of pancreatic cancer patients revealed no pain, whereas in chronic pancreatitis only 18.3% were pain free. In contrary, moderate/severe pain was registered in 15.1% in pancreatic cancer patients that was increased in chronic pancreatitis with up to 34.2%. Serous cystadenoma was asymptomatic in most cases (58.1%), whereas 78.9% of all mucinous cystadenoma patients suffered pain. In neuroendocrine neoplasia pain was not a key clinical symptom since 64% of low stage neuroendocrine neoplasia and 59% of high stage neuroendocrine neoplasia patients were pain free. Cancer localization in the pancreatic body and patients with malignant pancreatic neoplasms were associated with more severe pain. Tumor grading and stage did not show any impact on pain. Only in pancreatic cancer, pain was directly associated with impaired survival.
CONCLUSION: Pancreatic pain depicts different patterns of abdominal pain sensation according to the respective pancreatic disorder and does not allow a unification of the term pancreatic pain.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i27.9154
PMCID: PMC4112857  PMID: 25083089
Abdominal pain; Pancreatic neoplasm; Chronic pancreatitis; Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia; Pancreatic cancer
2.  Quality of life after curative liver resection: A single center analysis 
AIM: To evaluate quality of life (QoL) after curative liver resection and identify variables associated with decreased QoL.
METHODS: From October 2001 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent liver resection. At 3-36 mo after discharge, 188 patients were disease free. QoL was assessed using the Short Form (SF)-12 Health Survey with mental and physical component scales (SF-12 MCS and PCS), supplemented with generic questions concerning pain and liver-specific items.
RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent (128/188) returned the questionnaire, which was completed in 75% (96/128) of cases. Median SF-12 PCS and MCS were 46.7 (interquartile range: 34.2-53.9) and 54.1 (42.8-58.2). Fifty percent were pain free with a median symptom score of 1.75 (1.38-2.13). PCS was higher after major hepatectomy [57% (55/96)] compared to minor resection (P = 0.0049), which represented an improved QoL. QoL was not affected by sex but by age compared to the general German population. MCS was higher after liver surgery for metastatic disease [55.9 (47.5-58.8)] compared to primary carcinoma [49.6 (36.5-55.1)] and benign disease [49.2 (37.7-56.3)] (P = 0.0317). There was no correlation between length of postoperative period and QoL. Pain, deficiencies in everyday life and a high symptom score significantly decreased MCS and PCS.
CONCLUSION: Most patients were only marginally affected even after major liver resection; however, minor complications were associated with decreased SF-12 MCS and PCS and need careful attention.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i19.2388
PMCID: PMC2874143  PMID: 20480524
Quality of life; Liver resection
3.  Suppression of transforming growth factor β signalling aborts caerulein induced pancreatitis and eliminates restricted stimulation at high caerulein concentrations 
Gut  2006;56(5):685-692.
Background
Transforming growth factors βs (TGF‐βs) are implicated in pancreatic tissue repair but their role in acute pancreatitis is not known. To determine whether endogenous TGF‐βs modulate the course of caerulein induced acute pancreatitis, caerulein was administered to wild‐type (FVB−/−) and transgenic mice that are heterozygous (FVB+/−) for expression of a dominant negative type II TGF‐β receptor.
Methods
After 7 hourly supramaximal injections of caerulein, the pancreas was evaluated histologically and serum was assayed for amylase and lipase levels. Next, the effects of caerulein on amylase secretion were determined in mouse pancreatic acini, and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor expression was assessed.
Results
The normal mouse pancreas was devoid of inflammatory cells whereas the pancreas from transgenic mice contained lymphocytic infiltrates. Caerulein injection in wild‐type mice resulted in 6‐ and 36‐fold increases in serum amylase and lipase levels, respectively, increased serum trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) levels, gross oedema and a marked inflammatory response in the pancreas that consisted mainly of neutrophils and macrophages. By contrast, FVB+/− mice exhibited minimal alterations in response to caerulein with attenuated neutrophil–macrophage infiltrates. Moreover, acini from FVB+/− mice did not exhibit restricted stimulation at high caerulein concentrations, even though CCK receptor mRNA levels were not decreased.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that a functional TGF‐β signalling pathway may be required for caerulein to induce acute pancreatitis and for the CCK receptor to induce acinar cell damage at high ligand concentrations. Our results also support the concept that restricted stimulation at high caerulein concentrations contributes to the ability of caerulein to induce acute pancreatitis.
doi:10.1136/gut.2006.105833
PMCID: PMC1942167  PMID: 17135311
4.  BariSurg trial: Sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese patients with BMI 35–60 kg/m2 – a multi-centre randomized patient and observer blind non-inferiority trial 
BMC Surgery  2015;15:87.
Background
Roux-en-Ygastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) rank among the most frequently applied bariatric procedures worldwide due to their positive risk/benefit correlation. A systematic review revealed a similar excess weight loss (EWL) 2 years postoperatively between SG and RYGB. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled multi-centre trials comparing SG and RYGB, not only concerning EWL, but also in terms of remission of obesity-related co-morbidities, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and quality of life (QoL) in the mid- and long-term.
Methods
The BariSurg trial was designed as a multi-centre, randomized controlled patient and observer blind trial. The trial protocol was approved by the corresponding ethics committees of the centres. To demonstrate EWL non-inferiority of SG compared to RYGB, power calculation was performed according to a non-inferiority study design. Morbidity, mortality, remission of obesity-related co-morbidities, GERD course and QoL are major secondary endpoints. 248 patients between 18 and 70 years, with a body mass index (BMI) between 35–60 kg/m2 and indication for bariatric surgery according to the most recent German S3-guidelines will be randomized. The primary and secondary endpoints will be assessed prior to surgery and afterwards at discharge and at the time points 3–6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months postoperatively.
Discussion
With its five year follow-up, the BariSurg-trial will provide further evidence based data concerning the impact of SG and RYGB on EWL, remission of obesity-related co-morbidities, the course of GERD and QoL.
Trial registration
The trial protocol has been registered in the German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004766.
doi:10.1186/s12893-015-0072-7
PMCID: PMC4506636  PMID: 26187377
Sleeve gastrectomy; Roux-en-Ygastric bypass; Randomized controlled trial; Patient and observer blind trial; Long-term excess weight loss; Obesity related co-morbidity; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Quality of life; Morbidity; Mortality
5.  Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis of liver and pancreas: A case report and review of literature 
Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin, which can involve nearly all organs. In the case of an infrequent gastrointestinal tract involvement in systemic sarcoidosis, granulomas of the liver are most commonly described while isolated pancreatic sarcoid lesions are rarely seen. We report a case of systemic sarcoidosis with exclusive extrapulmonal involvement of the liver and the pancreas in a 71-year-old white man. The diagnosis of liver involvement was confirmed by biopsy. Pancreatic surgery was needed because preoperative evaluation could not exclude pancreatic cancer and for biliary decompression. An extensive literature review of systemic sarcoidosis, focusing on reported cases with unusual presentation of sarcoidosis in the liver and the pancreas, its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis was made.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i17.2504
PMCID: PMC4146771  PMID: 17552036
Systemic; Sarcoidosis; Extrapulmonary; Liver; Pancreas
6.  Autoimmune pancreatitis associated with a large pancreatic pseudocyst 
Pancreatic cystic lesions comprise various entities with different histopathological characteristics and their differential diagnosis is often a challenge for clinicians. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions, but often mimics the morphological aspects of pancreatic neoplasm. We report the case of a 64-year-old male patient with a cystic pancreatic head lesion (diameter 5 cm) and stenosis of the distal bile duct requiring repeated stenting. Because of the clinical presentation together with moderate elevation of serum CA19-9 and massive elevation of cyst fluid CA19-9 (122.695 U/L; normal range: < 37.0 U/L), the patient underwent explorative laparotomy and pylorus preserving partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histology revealed surprisingly AIP with an inflammatory pseudocyst. In conclusion, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and cyst fluid cytology lack high accuracy to clearly differentiate cystic pancreatic lesions. Although AIP is rarely associated with pseudocysts, the disease has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions. Early examination of serum IgG, IgG4 and auto-antibodies might save these patients from unnecessary endoscopical and surgical procedures.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i36.5904
PMCID: PMC4100678  PMID: 17007063
Pseudocyst; Autoimmune pancreatitis; Pancreatic cancer; Tumor marker; CEA; CA19-9
7.  Ruptured angiosarcoma of the liver treated by emergency catheter-directed embolization 
Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant neoplasm of the liver with a poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of a patient with a ruptured hepatic angiosarcoma which was treated by emergency catheter-directed embolization, followed by left-sided hemihepatectomy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i5.804
PMCID: PMC4066137  PMID: 16521200
Ruptured angiosarcoma; Liver; Embolization
8.  TIPSS for variceal hemorrhage after living related liver transplantation: A dangerous indication 
The introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of portal hypertension, which has evolved to a large extent, into a routine procedure. A 21-year-old male patient with progressive graft fibrosis/cirrhosis requiring TIPSS for variceal hemorrhage in the esophagus due to portal hypertension was unresponsive to conventional measures two years after living related liver transplantation (LDLT). Subsequently, variceal hemorrhage was controlled, however, liver function decreased dramatically with consecutive multi organ failure. CT scan revealed substantial necrosis in the liver. The patient underwent successful “high urgent” cadaveric liver transplantation and was discharged on postoperative d 20 in a stable condition.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i3.493
PMCID: PMC4066077  PMID: 16489658
Portal hypertension; Liver necrosis; Fibrosis; Cirrhosis
9.  Synergistic effects of interferon-alpha in combination with chemoradiation on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma 
AIM: To determine whether IFN-α is the agent that turns a slightly effective treatment (radiochemotherapy) into a potent therapy, we tested IFN-α for its synergistic properties.
METHODS: Eight pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were treated with the single agents and combinations of these. The role of IFN-α regarding a) direct inhibitory effects; b) radio and chemosensitizing effects; c) anti-angiogenic properties and d) enhancement of immunogenicity was investigated.
RESULTS: Our results show that IFN-α has direct inhibitory properties and some synergistic influence as determined by AnnexinV/PI stain and cell count. IFN-α is also able to prevent the increase in proliferation rate and VEGF secretion of CDDP resistant cells. Having taken the results from immunogenicity experiments together, we found cells that can be influenced by IFN-α but were less susceptible against T cells. Furthermore, high expression of MHC molecules, CD118, EGF-R and Fas was predictive for a good response.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IFN-α has direct cytotoxic effects, acts as a radiosensitizer and circumvents tumor cell-regrowth after CDDP treatment. These mechanisms may be responsible for the good clinical outcome of CapRI.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i10.1521
PMCID: PMC4305696  PMID: 15770730
Interferon-alpha; Pancreatic adenocarcinoma; Synergistic effects; Combination therapy
10.  A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection following bile duct stenting 
AIM: To present a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection following bile duct stenting in a patient with malignant biliary obstruction.
METHODS: A 78-year-old male patient was admitted to a community hospital with progredient painless jaundice lasting over two weeks, weight loss and sweating at night. Whether a stent should be implanted pre-operatively in jaundiced patients or whether these patients should directly undergo surgical resection, was discussed.
RESULTS: ERC and a biopsy from the papilla of Vater revealed an adenocarcinoma. In addition, a 7-Ch plastic stent was placed into the common bile duct. Persistent abdominal pain, increasing jaundice, weakness and indigestion led to the transfer of the patient to our hospital. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. Intraoperatively, bile leaked out of the transected choledochus and the stent was found to be dislocated in the duodenum. A smear of the bile revealed an infection with MRSA, leading to post-operative isolation of the patient.
CONCLUSION: As biliary stents can cause severe infection of the bile, the need for pre-operative placement of biliary stents should be carefully evaluated in each individual case.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i9.1396
PMCID: PMC4250693  PMID: 15761984
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Bile; Infection; Stent; Biliary obstruction; Malignancy; Surgery
11.  Impact of neo-adjuvant Sorafenib treatment on liver transplantation in HCC patients - a prospective, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:392.
Background
Liver Transplantation (LT) is treatment of choice for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within MILAN Criteria. Tumour progression and subsequent dropout from waiting list have significant impact on the survival. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) controls tumour growth in the treated HCC nodule, however, the risk of tumour development in the untreated liver is increased by simultaneous release of neo-angiogenic factors. Due to its anti-angiogenic effects, Sorafenib delays the progression of HCC. Aim of this study was to determine whether combination of TACE and Sorafenib improves tumour control in HCC patients on waiting list for LT.
Methods
Fifty patients were randomly assigned on a 1:1 ratio in double-blinded fashion at four centers in Germany and treated with TACE plus either Sorafenib (n = 24) or placebo (n = 26). The end of treatment was development of progressive disease according to mRECIST criteria or LT. The primary endpoint of the trial was the Time-to-Progression (TTP). Other efficacy endpoints were Tumour Response, Progression-free Survival (PFS), and Time-to-LT (TTLT).
Results
The median time of treatment was 125 days with Sorafenib and 171 days with the placebo. Fourteen patients (seven from each group) developed tumour progression during the course of the study period. The Hazard Ratio of TTP was 1.106 (95% CI: 0.387, 3.162). The results of the Objective Response Rate, Disease Control Rate, PFS, and TTLT were comparable in both groups. The incidence of AEs was comparable in the placebo group (n = 23, 92%) and in the Sorafenib group (n = 23, 96%). Twelve patients (50%) on Sorafenib and four patients (16%) on placebo experienced severe treatment-related AEs.
Conclusion
The TTP is similar after neo-adjuvant treatment with TACE and Sorafenib before LT compared to TACE and placebo. The Tumour Response, PFS, and TTLT were comparable. The safety profile of the Sorafenib group was similar to that of the placebo group.
Trial registration
ISRCTN24081794
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1373-z
PMCID: PMC4449604  PMID: 25957784
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Sorafenib; Transarterial chemoembolization
12.  Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity determines colorectal cancer patient prognosis 
The composition of tumor-targeted T cell infiltrates is a major prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) outcome; however, the functional role of these populations in prolonging patient survival remains unclear. Here, we evaluated 190 patients with CRC for the presence of functionally active tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), the tumor specificity of these TILs, and the correlation between patient TILs and long-term survival. Using intracytoplasmic cytokine staining in conjunction with HLA multimers loaded with tumor peptide and antigen-specific cytokine secretion assays, we determined that TNF-α expression delineates a population of tumor antigen–specific (TA-specific) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) present within tumors from patients with CRC. Upregulation of TNF-α expression in TILs strongly correlated with an increase in the total amount of intratumoral TNF-α, which is indicative of tumor-specific CTL activity. Moreover, a retrospective multivariate analysis of 102 patients with CRC, which had multiple immune parameters evaluated, revealed that increased TNF-α concentration was an independent prognostic factor. Together, these results indicate that the prognostic impact of T cell infiltrates for CRC maybe largely based on subpopulations of active TA-specific T cells within the tumor, suggesting causal implication for these cells in patient survival. Additionally, these results support the use of intratumoral TNF-α, which is indicative of T cell function, as a prognostic parameter for CRC.
doi:10.1172/JCI74894
PMCID: PMC4319435  PMID: 25562322
13.  Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemoradiation with gemcitabine after R1 resection in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma 
Background
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of radiation therapy and chemoradiation with gemcitabine (GEM) after R1 resection in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC).
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of 25 patients who were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation (CRT) after surgery with microscopically positive resection margins for primary pancreatic cancer (PAC). Median age was 60 years (range 34 to 74 years), and there were 17 male and 8 female patients. Fractionated RT was applied with a median dose of 49.6 Gy (range 36 to 54 Gy). Eight patients received additional intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with a median dose of 12 Gy.
Results
Median overall survival (mOS) of all treated patients was 22 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.9 to 36.1 months) after date of resection and 21.1 months (95% CI 7.6 to 34.6 months) after start of (C)RT. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 13.0 months (95% CI 0.93 to 25 months). Grading (G2 vs. G3, P = 0.005) and gender (female vs. male, P = 0.01) were significantly correlated with OS. There was a significant difference in mPFS between male and female patients (P = 0.008). A total of 11 from 25 patients experienced local tumour progression, and 19 patients were diagnosed with either locoregional or distant failure.
Conclusions
We demonstrated that GEM-based CRT can be applied in analogy to neoadjuvant protocols in the adjuvant setting for PAC patients at high risk for disease recurrence after incomplete resection. Patients undergoing additive CRT have a rather good OS and PFS compared to historical control patient groups.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0560-3
PMCID: PMC4404664  PMID: 25889749
Radiotherapy; Pancreatic cancer; Adjuvant radiotherapy; Incomplete resection; R1 resection
14.  Frequency of pneumothorax and haemothorax after primary open versus closed implantation strategies for insertion of a totally implantable venous access port in oncological patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2015;16:128.
Background
The insertion of central venous access devices, such as totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs), is routine in patients who need a safe and permanent venous access. The number of port implantations is increasing due to the development of innovative adjuvant and neo-adjuvant therapies. Currently, two different strategies are being routinely used: surgical cut-down of the cephalic vein (vena section) and direct puncture of the subclavian vein. The aim of this trial is to identify the strategy for the implantation of TIVAPs with the lowest risk of pneumothorax and haemothorax.
Methods/Design
The PORTAS-3 trial is designed as a multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare two implantation strategies. A total of 1,154 patients will be randomised after giving written informed consent. Patients must be over 18 years of age and scheduled for primary implantation of a TIVAP on the designated side. The primary endpoint will be the frequency of pneumothorax and haemothorax after insertion of a TIVAP by one of two different strategies. The experimental intervention is as follows: open strategy, defined as surgical cut-down of the cephalic vein, supported by a rescue technique if necessary, and in the case of failure, direct puncture of the subclavian vein. The control intervention is as follows: direct puncture of the subclavian vein using the Seldinger technique guided by sonography, fluoroscopy or landmark technique. The trial duration is approximately 36 months, with a recruitment period of 18 months and a follow-up period of 30 days.
Discussion
The PORTAS-3 trial will compare two different TIVAP implantation strategies with regard to their individual risk of postoperative pneumothorax and haemothorax. Since TIVAP implantation is one of the most common procedures in general surgery, the results will be of interest for a large community of surgeons as well as oncologists and general practitioners. The pragmatic trial design ensures that the results will be generalizable to a wide range of patients.
Trial registration
The trial protocol was registered on 28 August 2014 with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00004900). The World Health Organization’s Universal Trial Number is U1111-1142-4420.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0643-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0643-z
PMCID: PMC4396913  PMID: 25872780
Venous access ports; Implantation strategies; Pneumothorax; Haemothorax
16.  Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer 
Wolpin, Brian M. | Rizzato, Cosmeri | Kraft, Peter | Kooperberg, Charles | Petersen, Gloria M. | Wang, Zhaoming | Arslan, Alan A. | Beane-Freeman, Laura | Bracci, Paige M. | Buring, Julie | Canzian, Federico | Duell, Eric J. | Gallinger, Steven | Giles, Graham G. | Goodman, Gary E. | Goodman, Phyllis J. | Jacobs, Eric J. | Kamineni, Aruna | Klein, Alison P. | Kolonel, Laurence N. | Kulke, Matthew H. | Li, Donghui | Malats, Núria | Olson, Sara H. | Risch, Harvey A. | Sesso, Howard D. | Visvanathan, Kala | White, Emily | Zheng, Wei | Abnet, Christian C. | Albanes, Demetrius | Andreotti, Gabriella | Austin, Melissa A. | Barfield, Richard | Basso, Daniela | Berndt, Sonja I. | Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine | Brotzman, Michelle | Büchler, Markus W. | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas | Bugert, Peter | Burdette, Laurie | Campa, Daniele | Caporaso, Neil E. | Capurso, Gabriele | Chung, Charles | Cotterchio, Michelle | Costello, Eithne | Elena, Joanne | Funel, Niccola | Gaziano, J. Michael | Giese, Nathalia A. | Giovannucci, Edward L. | Goggins, Michael | Gorman, Megan J. | Gross, Myron | Haiman, Christopher A. | Hassan, Manal | Helzlsouer, Kathy J. | Henderson, Brian E. | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Hu, Nan | Hunter, David J. | Innocenti, Federico | Jenab, Mazda | Kaaks, Rudolf | Key, Timothy J. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Klein, Eric A. | Kogevinas, Manolis | Krogh, Vittorio | Kupcinskas, Juozas | Kurtz, Robert C. | LaCroix, Andrea | Landi, Maria T. | Landi, Stefano | Le Marchand, Loic | Mambrini, Andrea | Mannisto, Satu | Milne, Roger L. | Nakamura, Yusuke | Oberg, Ann L. | Owzar, Kouros | Patel, Alpa V. | Peeters, Petra H. M. | Peters, Ulrike | Pezzilli, Raffaele | Piepoli, Ada | Porta, Miquel | Real, Francisco X. | Riboli, Elio | Rothman, Nathaniel | Scarpa, Aldo | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Silverman, Debra T. | Soucek, Pavel | Sund, Malin | Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata | Taylor, Philip R. | Theodoropoulos, George E. | Thornquist, Mark | Tjønneland, Anne | Tobias, Geoffrey S. | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Vodicka, Pavel | Wactawski-Wende, Jean | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Wu, Chen | Yu, Herbert | Yu, Kai | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Hoover, Robert | Hartge, Patricia | Fuchs, Charles | Chanock, Stephen J. | Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S. | Amundadottir, Laufey T.
Nature genetics  2014;46(9):994-1000.
We performed a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT; per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74–0.84; P = 3.0×10−12), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2; OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.30–1.65; P = 1.1×10−10), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1; OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10–1.20; P = 2.4×10−9), and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3; OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.12–1.25; P = 1.2×10−8). An independent signal was identified in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098; OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.76–0.85; P = 9.8×10−14). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927; P = 1.3×10−7) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study has identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer worthy of follow-up studies.
doi:10.1038/ng.3052
PMCID: PMC4191666  PMID: 25086665
17.  Claudin-7 promotes the epithelial – mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer 
Oncotarget  2014;6(4):2046-2063.
In colorectal cancer (CoCa) EpCAM is frequently associated with claudin-7. There is evidence that tumor-promoting EpCAM activities are modulated by the association with claudin-7. To support this hypothesis, claudin-7 was knocked-down (kd) in HT29 and SW948 cells.
HT29-cld7kd and SW948-cld7kd cells display decreased anchorage-independent growth and the capacity for holoclone-, respectively, sphere-formation is reduced. Tumor growth is delayed and cld7kd cells poorly metastasize. In line with this, migratory and invasive potential of cld7kd clones is strongly impaired, migration being inhibited by anti-CD49c, but not anti-EpCAM, although motility is reduced in EpCAM siRNA-treated cells. This is due to claudin-7 recruiting EpCAM in glycolipid-enriched membrane fractions towards claudin-7-associated TACE and presenilin2, which cleave EpCAM. The cleaved intracellular domain, EpIC, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated transcription factor expression, which together with fibronectin and vimentin are reduced in claudin-7kd cells. But, uptake of HT29wt and SW948wt exosomes by the claudin-7kd lines sufficed for transcription factor upregulation and for restoring motility.
Thus, claudin-7 contributes to motility and invasion and is required for recruiting EpCAM towards TACE/presenilin2. EpIC generation further supports motility by promoting a shift towards EMT. Notably, EMT features of cld7-competent metastatic CoCa cells can be transferred via exosomes to poorly metastatic cells.
PMCID: PMC4385835  PMID: 25514462
Colorectal cancer; claudin 7; EpCAM; cancer initiating cells; metastasis
18.  GHSR DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic alteration of high diagnostic value in a broad spectrum of cancers 
Oncotarget  2015;6(6):4418-4427.
Identification of a single molecular trait that is determinant of common malignancies may serve as a powerful diagnostic supplement to cancer type-specific markers. Here, we report a DNA methylation mark that is characteristic of seven studied malignancies, namely cancers of lung, breast, prostate, pancreas, colorectum, glioblastoma and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (n = 137). This mark was defined by substantial hypermethylation at the promoter and first exon of growth hormone secretagouge receptor (GHSR) through bisulfite pyrosequencing. The degree of aberrant methylation was capable of accurate discrimination between cancer and control samples. The highest sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection was achieved for cancers of pancreas, lung, breast and CLL yielding the area under the curve (AUC) values of 1.0000, 0.9952, 0.9800 and 0.9400, respectively. Narrowing to a single CpG site within the gene's promoter or four consecutive CpG units of the highest methylation levels within the first exon improved the detection power. GHSR hypermethylation was detected already at the early stage tumors. The accurate performance of this marker was further replicated in an independent set of pancreatic cancer and control samples (n = 78). These findings support the candidature of GHSR methylation as a highly accurate pan-cancer marker.
PMCID: PMC4414200  PMID: 25557172
DNA methylation; Cancer; Diagnosis; GHSR; Epigenetics
19.  Association of industry sponsorship and positive outcome in randomised controlled trials in general and abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review and empirical study 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3:138.
Background
Industry sponsorship has been identified as a factor correlating with positive research findings in several fields of medical science. To date, the influence of industry sponsorship in general and abdominal surgery has not been fully studied. This protocol describes the rationale and planned conduct of a systematic review to determine the association between industry sponsorship and positive outcome in randomised controlled trials in general and abdominal surgery.
Methods/design
A literature search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE and additional hand searches in relevant citations will be conducted. In order to cover all relevant areas of general and abdominal surgery, a new literature search strategy called multi-PICO search strategy (MPSS) has been developed. No language restriction will be applied. The search will be limited to publications between January 1985 and July 2014. Information on funding source, outcome, study characteristics and methodological quality will be extracted.
The association between industry sponsorship and positive outcome will be tested by a chi-squared test. A multivariate logistic regression analysis will be performed to control for possible confounders, such as number of study centres, multinational trials, methodological quality, journal impact factor and sample size.
Discussion
This study was designed to clarify whether industry-sponsored trials report more positive outcomes than non-industry trials. It will be the first study to evaluate this topic in general and abdominal surgery. The findings of this study will enable surgical societies, in particular, to give advice about cooperation with the industry and disclosure of funding source based on empirical evidence.
Systematic review registration
PROSPERO CRD42014010802
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-138) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-138
PMCID: PMC4280764  PMID: 25431307
Industry bias; Industry sponsorship; General and abdominal surgery; Randomised controlled trial; Medical devices; Systematic review; Science study; Health care research
20.  Maximizing time from the constraining European Working Time Directive (EWTD): The Heidelberg New Working Time Model 
Background
The introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) has greatly reduced training hours of surgical residents, which translates into 30% less surgical and clinical experience. Such a dramatic drop in attendance has serious implications such compromised quality of medical care. As the surgical department of the University of Heidelberg, our goal was to establish a model that was compliant with the EWTD while avoiding reduction in quality of patient care and surgical training.
Methods
We first performed workload analyses and performance statistics for all working areas of our department (operation theater, emergency room, specialized consultations, surgical wards and on-call duties) using personal interviews, time cards, medical documentation software as well as data of the financial- and personnel-controlling sector of our administration. Using that information, we specifically designed an EWTD-compatible work model and implemented it.
Results
Surgical wards and operating rooms (ORs) were not compliant with the EWTD. Between 5 pm and 8 pm, three ORs were still operating two-thirds of the time. By creating an extended work shift (7:30 am-7:30 pm), we effectively reduced the workload to less than 49% from 4 pm and 8 am, allowing the combination of an eight-hour working day with a 16-hour on call duty; thus, maximizing surgical resident training and ensuring patient continuity of care while maintaining EDTW guidelines.
Conclusion
A precise workload analysis is the key to success. The Heidelberg New Working Time Model provides a legal model, which, by avoiding rotating work shifts, assures quality of patient care and surgical training.
doi:10.1186/s13561-014-0014-6
PMCID: PMC4408492  PMID: 25984433
Working time model; European working time directive; EWTD; Workload analysis; Surgical training; Heidelberg
21.  A mechanistic role for the chromatin modulator, NAP1L1, in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm proliferation and metastases 
Background
The chromatin remodeler NAP1L1, which is upregulated in small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), has been implicated in cell cycle progression. As p57Kip2 (CDKN1C), a negative regulator of proliferation and a tumor suppressor, is controlled by members of the NAP1 family, we tested the hypothesis that NAP1L1 may have a mechanistic role in regulating pancreatic NEN proliferation through regulation of p57Kip2.
Results
NAP1L1 silencing (siRNA and shRNA/lipofectamine approach) decreased proliferation through inhibition of mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin pathway proteins and their phosphorylation (p < 0.05) in the pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm cell line BON in vitro (p < 0.0001) and resulted in significantly smaller (p < 0.05) and lighter (p < 0.05) tumors in the orthotopic pancreatic NEN mouse model. Methylation of the p57 Kip2 promoter was decreased by NAP1L1 silencing (p < 0.05), and expression of p57Kip2 (transcript and protein) was upregulated. For methylation of the p57 Kip2 promoter, NAP1L1 bound directly to the promoter (−164 to +21, chromatin immunoprecipitation). In 43 pancreatic NEN samples (38 primaries and 5 metastasis), NAP1L1 was over-expressed in metastasis (p < 0.001), expression which was inversely correlated with p57Kip2 (p < 0.01) on mRNA and protein levels. Menin was not differentially expressed.
Conclusion
NAP1L1 is over-expressed in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm metastases and epigenetically promotes cell proliferation through regulation of p57 Kip2 promoter methylation.
doi:10.1186/1756-8935-7-15
PMCID: PMC4112619  PMID: 25071868
NAP1L1; Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; pNETs; Promoter methylation; p57; Proliferation
22.  Prediction of Postoperative Mortality in Liver Transplantation in the Era of MELD-Based Liver Allocation: A Multivariate Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98782.
Background and Aims
Liver transplantation is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. While waiting list mortality can be predicted by the MELD-score, reliable scoring systems for the postoperative period do not exist. This study's objective was to identify risk factors that contribute to postoperative mortality.
Methods
Between December 2006 and March 2011, 429 patients underwent liver transplantation in our department. Risk factors for postoperative mortality in 266 consecutive liver transplantations were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients who were <18 years, HU-listings, and split-, living related, combined or re-transplantations were excluded from the analysis. The correlation between number of risk factors and mortality was analyzed.
Results
A labMELD ≥20, female sex, coronary heart disease, donor risk index >1.5 and donor Na+>145 mmol/L were identified to be independent predictive factors for postoperative mortality. With increasing number of these risk-factors, postoperative 90-day and 1-year mortality increased (0–1: 0 and 0%; 2: 2.9 and 17.4%; 3: 5.6 and 16.8%; 4: 22.2 and 33.3%; 5–6: 60.9 and 66.2%).
Conclusions
In this analysis, a simple score was derived that adequately identified patients at risk after liver transplantation. Opening a discussion on the inclusion of these parameters in the process of organ allocation may be a worthwhile venture.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098782
PMCID: PMC4048202  PMID: 24905210
23.  CD44 standard and CD44v10 isoform expression on leukemia cells distinctly influences niche embedding of hematopoietic stem cells 
Background
A blockade of CD44 is considered a therapeutic option for the elimination of leukemia initiating cells. However, anti-panCD44 can interfere with hematopoiesis. Therefore we explored, whether a CD44 variant isoform (CD44v)-specific antibody can inhibit leukemia growth without attacking hematopoiesis. As a model we used CD44v10 transfected EL4 thymoma cells (EL4-v10).
Methods
The therapeutic efficacy of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 was evaluated after intravenous application of EL4/EL4-v10. Ex vivo and in vitro studies evaluated the impact of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 as well as of EL4 and EL4-v10 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in cocultures with bone marrow stroma cells with a focus on adhesion, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis resistance.
Results
Intravenously injected EL4-v10 grow in bone marrow and spleen. Anti-panCD44 and, more pronounced anti-CD44v10 prolong the survival time. The higher efficacy of anti-CD44v10 compared to anti-panCD44 does not rely on stronger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity or on promoting EL4-v10 apoptosis. Instead, EL4 compete with HSC niche embedding. This has consequences on quiescence and apoptosis-protecting signals provided by the stroma. Anti-panCD44, too, more efficiently affected embedding of HSC than of EL4 in the bone marrow stroma. EL4-v10, by catching osteopontin, migrated on bone marrow stroma and did not or weakly interfere with HSC adhesion. Anti-CD44v10, too, did not affect the HSC – bone marrow stroma crosstalk.
Conclusion
The therapeutic effect of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 is based on stimulation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The superiority of anti-CD44v10 is partly due to blocking CD44v10-stimulated osteopontin expression that could drive HSC out of the niche. However, the main reason for the superiority of anti-CD44v10 relies on neither EL4-v10 nor anti-CD44v10 severely interfering with HSC – stroma cell interactions that, on the other hand, are affected by EL4 and anti-panCD44. Anti-panCD44 disturbing HSC embedding in the osteogenic niche weakens its therapeutic effect towards EL4. Thus, as far as leukemic cells express CD44v isoforms, the therapeutic use of anti-panCD44 should be avoided in favor of CD44v-specific antibodies.
doi:10.1186/1756-8722-7-29
PMCID: PMC4022365  PMID: 24684724
Leukemia; Antibody therapy; CD44v10; Hematopoiesis; Bone marrow stroma
24.  Adjuvant therapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases: the predictive value of the MSKCC clinical risk score in the era of modern chemotherapy 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:174.
Background
Despite introduction of effective chemotherapy protocols, it has remained uncertain, if patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases should receive adjuvant therapy. Clinical or molecular predictors may help to select patients at high risk for disease recurrence and death who obtain a survival advantage by adjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
A total of 297 patients with potentially curative resection of CRC liver metastases were analyzed. These patients had no neoadjuvant therapy, no extrahepatic disease and negative resection margins. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients’ risk status was evaluated using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center clinical risk score (MSKCC-CRS). Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models.
Results
A total of 137 (43%) patients had a MSKCC-CRS > 2. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 116 (37%) patients. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were of younger age (p = 0.03) with no significant difference in the presence of multiple metastases (p = 0.72) or bilobar metastases (p = 0.08). On multivariate analysis adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in the entire cohort (Hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.69–0.98). It improved survival markedly in high-risk patients with a MSKCC-CRS > 2 (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23–0.69), whereas it was of no benefit in patients with a MSKCC-CRS ≤ 2 (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.57–1.43).
Conclusions
The MSKCC-CRS offers a tool to select patients for adjuvant therapy after resection of CRC liver metastases. Validation in independent patient cohorts is required.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-174
PMCID: PMC4008001  PMID: 24612620
Colorectal cancer; FOLFOX; FOLFIRI; 5-FU; Leucovorin; Liver resection
25.  Stem cell Transplantation for Eradication of Minimal PAncreatic Cancer persisting after surgical Excision (STEM PACE Trial, ISRCTN47877138): study protocol for a phase II study 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:168.
Background
Pancreatic cancer is the third most common cancer related cause of death. Even in the 15% of patients who are eligible for surgical resection the outlook is dismal with less than 10% of patients surviving after 5 years. Allogeneic hematopoietic (allo-HSCT) stem cell transplantation is an established treatment capable of to providing cure in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies. Best results are achieved when the underlying neoplasm has been turned into a stage of minimal disease by chemotherapy. Allo-HSCT in advanced solid tumors including pancreatic cancer have been of limited success, however studies of allo-HSCT in solid tumors in minimal disease situations have never been performed. The aim of this trial is to provide evidence for the clinical value of allo-HSCT in pancreatic cancer put into a minimal disease status by effective surgical resection and standard adjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods/Design
The STEM PACE trial is a single center, phase II study to evaluate adjuvant allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pancreatic cancer after surgical resection. The study will evaluate as primary endpoint 2 year progression free survival and will generate first time state-of-the-art scientific clinical evidence if allo-HSCT is feasible and if it can provide long term disease control in patients with effectively resected pancreatic cancer. Screened eligible patients after surgical resection and standard adjuvant chemotherapy with HLA matched related stem cell donor can participate. Patients without a matched donor will be used as a historical control. Study patients will undergo standard conditioning for allo-HSCT followed by transplantation of allogeneic unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells. The follow up of the patients will continue for 2 years. Secondary endpoints will be evaluated on 7 postintervention visits.
Discussion
The principal question addressed in this trial is whether allo-HSCT can change the unfavourable natural course of this disease. The underlying hypothesis is that allo-HSCT has the capacity to provide long-term disease control to an extent otherwise not possible in pancreatic cancer, thereby substantially improving survival of affected patients.
Trial registration
This trial has been registered: ISRCTN47877138
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-168
PMCID: PMC4008264  PMID: 24612467
Pancreatic cancer; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Minimal residual disease

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