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author:("rate, Arnt J")
1.  The Host-Pathogen interaction of human cyclophilin A and HIV-1 Vpr requires specific N-terminal and novel C-terminal domains 
Background
Cyclophilin A (CypA) represents a potential key molecule in future antiretroviral therapy since inhibition of CypA suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. CypA interacts with the virus proteins Capsid (CA) and Vpr, however, the mechanism through which CypA influences HIV-1 infectivity still remains unclear.
Results
Here the interaction of full-length HIV-1 Vpr with the host cellular factor CypA has been characterized and quantified by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. A C-terminal region of Vpr, comprising the 16 residues 75GCRHSRIGVTRQRRAR90, with high binding affinity for CypA has been identified. This region of Vpr does not contain any proline residues but binds much more strongly to CypA than the previously characterized N-terminal binding domain of Vpr, and is thus the first protein binding domain to CypA described involving no proline residues. The fact that the mutant peptide Vpr75-90 R80A binds more weakly to CypA than the wild-type peptide confirms that Arg-80 is a key residue in the C-terminal binding domain. The N- and C-terminal binding regions of full-length Vpr bind cooperatively to CypA and have allowed a model of the complex to be created. The dissociation constant of full-length Vpr to CypA was determined to be approximately 320 nM, indicating that the binding may be stronger than that of the well characterized interaction of HIV-1 CA with CypA.
Conclusions
For the first time the interaction of full-length Vpr and CypA has been characterized and quantified. A non-proline-containing 16-residue region of C-terminal Vpr which binds specifically to CypA with similar high affinity as full-length Vpr has been identified. The fact that this is the first non-proline containing binding motif of any protein found to bind to CypA, changes the view on how CypA is able to interact with other proteins. It is interesting to note that several previously reported key functions of HIV-1 Vpr are associated with the identified N- and C-terminal binding domains of the protein to CypA.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-11-49
PMCID: PMC3269379  PMID: 22185200
2.  The intriguing Cyclophilin A-HIV-1 Vpr interaction: prolyl cis/trans isomerisation catalysis and specific binding 
Background
Cyclophilin A (CypA) represents a potential target for antiretroviral therapy since inhibition of CypA suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, although the mechanism through which CypA modulates HIV-1 infectivity still remains unclear. The interaction of HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) with the human peptidyl prolyl isomerase CypA is known to occur in vitro and in vivo. However, the nature of the interaction of CypA with Pro-35 of N-terminal Vpr has remained undefined.
Results
Characterization of the interactions of human CypA with N-terminal peptides of HIV-1 Vpr has been achieved using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonace (NMR) exchange spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR). NMR data at atomic resolution indicate prolyl cis/trans isomerisation of the highly conserved proline residues Pro-5, -10, -14 and -35 of Vpr are catalyzed by human CypA and require only very low concentrations of the isomerase relative to that of the peptide substrates. Of the N-terminal peptides of Vpr only those containing Pro-35 bind to CypA in a biosensor assay. SPR studies of specific N-terminal peptides with decreasing numbers of residues revealed that a seven-residue motif centred at Pro-35 consisting of RHFPRIW, which under membrane-like solution conditions comprises the loop region connecting helix 1 and 2 of Vpr and the two terminal residues of helix 1, is sufficient to maintain strong specific binding.
Conclusions
Only N-terminal peptides of Vpr containing Pro-35, which appears to be vital for manifold functions of Vpr, bind to CypA in a biosensor assay. This indicates that Pro-35 is essential for a specific CypA-Vpr binding interaction, in contrast to the general prolyl cis/trans isomerisation observed for all proline residues of Vpr, which only involve transient enzyme-substrate interactions. Previously suggested models depicting CypA as a chaperone that plays a role in HIV-1 virulence are now supported by our data. In detail the SPR data of this interaction were compatible with a two-state binding interaction model that involves a conformational change during binding. This is in accord with the structural changes observed by NMR suggesting CypA catalyzes the prolyl cis/trans interconversion during binding to the RHFP35RIW motif of N-terminal Vpr.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-10-31
PMCID: PMC2959089  PMID: 20920334

Results 1-2 (2)