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Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1)
BMC Research Notes (1)
Yamada, Tsuyoshi (2)
Abe, Shigeru (1)
Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi (1)
Iwata, Atsushi (1)
Makimura, Koichi (1)
Nishiyama, Yayoi (1)
Okawa, Atsushi (1)
Suzuki, Koji (1)
Yoshii, Toshitaka (1)
Yoshimura, Hideya (1)
Year of Publication
Development of a Tightly Regulatable Copper-Mediated Gene Switch System in Dermatophytes
Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Targeted gene deletion is now available for molecular genetic research of dermatophytes, and the physiological roles of several genes have been elucidated. However, this method cannot be applied to essential genes, which can be potential drug targets. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a conditional gene knockdown system using a copper-responsive promoter. The promoter sequence of the copper transporter gene CTR4 (PCTR4) and that of the copper efflux pump gene CRP1 (PCRP1) derived from Trichophyton rubrum were examined for their response to copper in Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. PCTR4 was demonstrated to repress expression of a reporter gene in the presence of copper, while the activity of PCRP1 was induced by addition of copper. Importantly, PCTR4 regulated the gene expression more tightly. Furthermore, when PCTR4 was applied to regulate the expression of the endogenous genes ERG1 and TRP5, their conditional mutants exhibited decreased growth activity under the repressive conditions. These results suggest that the PCTR4-based gene regulation system represents a powerful tool for identification and characterization of a broad range of genes, including essential genes, in dermatophytes.
Upper limb amputation due to a brachial arterial embolism associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism: a case report
BMC Research Notes
Acute mesenteric ischemia due to an embolism of the superior mesenteric artery is associated with a high mortality rate. Over 20 percent of acute mesenteric embolism cases consist of multiple emboli, and the long-term prognosis depends on the incidence of subsequent embolic events at other sites. The incidence of emboli in the upper extremity associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism has rarely been described. The signs and symptoms of ischemic change in the upper limb can be masked by other circumstances, such as postoperative conditions or complications. In these cases, a late presentation or delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in limb loss.
We present a rare case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with atrial fibrillation who developed an embolic occlusion of the brachial artery associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism. She developed gangrene in her right hand, which had progressed to the point that amputation was necessary by the time the gastrointestinal surgeon had consulted the Department of Orthopedic Surgery. The brachial arterial embolism diagnosis was delayed by the severe abdominal symptoms and shock conditions that followed the emergency enterectomy, resulting in amputation of the upper limb despite anticoagulation therapy. In this case, multiple infarctions of the spleen were also observed, indicating a shower embolism.
When treating a superior mesenteric arterial embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation, the possibility of recurrent or multiple arterial thromboembolic events should be considered, even after the procedure is completed.
SMA; Embolism; Upper limb; Amputation
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