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1.  Reconstructing the origin and transmission dynamics of the 1967–68 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the United Kingdom☆ 
Infection, Genetics and Evolution  2013;20(100):230-238.
Highlights
•Study characterised genomic sequences from archived FMDV samples collected during the 1960s.•The epidemic in 1967–68 occurred as a result of an independent introduction of FMDV into the UK.•Molecular clock used to identify viral sequences that accrued fewer than expected substitutions.•Study supports the use of sequences to trace RNA viruses during outbreaks and epidemics.
A large epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in the United Kingdom (UK) over a seven month period in Northwest England from late 1967 to the summer of 1968. This was preceded by a number of smaller FMD outbreaks in the country, two in 1967, in Hampshire and Warwickshire and one in Northumberland during 1966. The causative agent of all four events was identified as FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O and the source of the large epidemic was attributed to infected bone marrow in lamb products imported from Argentina. However, the diagnostic tools available at the time were unable to entirely rule out connections with the earlier UK FMD outbreaks, as well as other potential sources from Europe. The aim of this study was to apply molecular sequencing to investigate the likely source of this epidemic using VP1 region and full genome (FG) sequences determined directly from clinical epithelium samples (n = 13) or cell culture isolates (n = 6), from this and contemporary outbreaks in the UK, Europe and South America. Analysis of the VP1 sequences provided evidence for at least three separate incursions of FMDV into the UK including one independent introduction that was responsible for the main 1967/68 epidemic. Analysis of FG sequences from the main 1967/68 outbreak (n = 10) revealed nucleotide substitutions at 94 genomic sites providing evidence for the linear accumulation of nucleotide substitutions (rate = 2.42 × 10−5 nt substitutions/site/day). However, there were five samples where this linear relationship was absent, indicating evolutional dormancy of the virus, presumably outside a host. These results help define the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV during an epidemic and contribute to the knowledge and understanding from which to base future outbreak control strategies.
doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.09.009
PMCID: PMC3898989  PMID: 24035793
Foot-and-mouth disease; Epidemic; Full-genome sequencing; Phylogenetics; United Kingdom
2.  DECIPHER: database for the interpretation of phenotype-linked plausibly pathogenic sequence and copy-number variation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(D1):D993-D1000.
The DECIPHER database (https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/) is an accessible online repository of genetic variation with associated phenotypes that facilitates the identification and interpretation of pathogenic genetic variation in patients with rare disorders. Contributing to DECIPHER is an international consortium of >200 academic clinical centres of genetic medicine and ≥1600 clinical geneticists and diagnostic laboratory scientists. Information integrated from a variety of bioinformatics resources, coupled with visualization tools, provides a comprehensive set of tools to identify other patients with similar genotype–phenotype characteristics and highlights potentially pathogenic genes. In a significant development, we have extended DECIPHER from a database of just copy-number variants to allow upload, annotation and analysis of sequence variants such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and InDels. Other notable developments in DECIPHER include a purpose-built, customizable and interactive genome browser to aid combined visualization and interpretation of sequence and copy-number variation against informative datasets of pathogenic and population variation. We have also introduced several new features to our deposition and analysis interface. This article provides an update to the DECIPHER database, an earlier instance of which has been described elsewhere [Swaminathan et al. (2012) DECIPHER: web-based, community resource for clinical interpretation of rare variants in developmental disorders. Hum. Mol. Genet., 21, R37–R44].
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt937
PMCID: PMC3965078  PMID: 24150940
3.  DECIPHER: web-based, community resource for clinical interpretation of rare variants in developmental disorders 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;21(R1):R37-R44.
Patients with developmental disorders often harbour sub-microscopic deletions or duplications that lead to a disruption of normal gene expression or perturbation in the copy number of dosage-sensitive genes. Clinical interpretation for such patients in isolation is hindered by the rarity and novelty of such disorders. The DECIPHER project (https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk) was established in 2004 as an accessible online repository of genomic and associated phenotypic data with the primary goal of aiding the clinical interpretation of rare copy-number variants (CNVs). DECIPHER integrates information from a variety of bioinformatics resources and uses visualization tools to identify potential disease genes within a CNV. A two-tier access system permits clinicians and clinical scientists to maintain confidential linked anonymous records of phenotypes and CNVs for their patients that, with informed consent, can subsequently be shared with the wider clinical genetics and research communities. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies are making it practical and affordable to sequence the whole exome/genome of patients who display features suggestive of a genetic disorder. This approach enables the identification of smaller intragenic mutations including single-nucleotide variants that are not accessible even with high-resolution genomic array analysis. This article briefly summarizes the current status and achievements of the DECIPHER project and looks ahead to the opportunities and challenges of jointly analysing structural and sequence variation in the human genome.
doi:10.1093/hmg/dds362
PMCID: PMC3459644  PMID: 22962312
4.  Observing micro-evolutionary processes of viral populations at multiple scales 
Advances in sequencing technology coupled with new integrative approaches to data analysis provide a potentially transformative opportunity to use pathogen genome data to advance our understanding of transmission. However, to maximize the insights such genetic data can provide, we need to understand more about how the microevolution of pathogens is observed at different scales of biological organization. Here, we examine the evolutionary processes in foot-and-mouth disease virus observed at different scales, ranging from the tissue, animal, herd and region. At each scale, we observe analogous processes of population expansion, mutation and selection resulting in the accumulation of mutations over increasing time scales. While the current data are limited, rates of nucleotide substitution appear to be faster over individual-to-individual transmission events compared with those observed at a within-individual scale suggesting that viral population bottlenecks between individuals facilitate the fixation of polymorphisms. Longer-term rates of nucleotide substitution were found to be equivalent in individual-to-individual transmission compared with herd-to-herd transmission indicating that viral diversification at the herd level is not retained at a regional scale.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0203
PMCID: PMC3678327  PMID: 23382425
virus; evolution; scales; foot-and-mouth disease; transmission; bottlenecks
5.  Accumulation of nucleotide substitutions occurring during experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus 
The Journal of General Virology  2013;94(Pt 1):108-119.
Analysis of full-genome sequences was previously used to trace the origin and transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks in the UK in 2001 and 2007. Interpretation of these data was sometimes at variance with conventional epidemiological tracing, and was also used to predict the presence of undisclosed infected premises that were later discovered during serological surveillance. Here we report the genome changes associated with sequential passage of a highly BHK-21-cell-adapted (heparan sulphate-binding) strain of FMDV arising from two independent transmission chains in cattle. In vivo virus replication rapidly selected for a wild-type variant with an amino acid substitution at VP356. Full-genome sequence analysis clearly demonstrated sequence divergence during parallel passage. The genetic diversity generated over the course of infection and the rate at which these changes became fixed and were transmitted between cattle occurred at a rate sufficient to enable reliable tracing of transmission pathways at the level of the individual animal. However, tracing of transmission pathways was only clear when sequences from epithelial lesions were compared. Sequences derived from oesophageal–pharyngeal scrapings were problematic to interpret, with a varying number of ambiguities suggestive of a more diverse virus population. These findings will help to correctly interpret full-genome sequence analyses to resolve transmission pathways within future FMDV epidemics.
doi:10.1099/vir.0.046029-0
PMCID: PMC3542721  PMID: 23034594
6.  Evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus intra-sample sequence diversity during serial transmission in bovine hosts 
Veterinary Research  2013;44(1):12.
RNA virus populations within samples are highly heterogeneous, containing a large number of minority sequence variants which can potentially be transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Consequently, consensus genome sequences provide an incomplete picture of the within- and between-host viral evolutionary dynamics during transmission. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an RNA virus that can spread from primary sites of replication, via the systemic circulation, to found distinct sites of local infection at epithelial surfaces. Viral evolution in these different tissues occurs independently, each of them potentially providing a source of virus to seed subsequent transmission events. This study employed the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to sequence 18 FMDV samples collected from a chain of sequentially infected cattle. These data generated snap-shots of the evolving viral population structures within different animals and tissues. Analyses of the mutation spectra revealed polymorphisms at frequencies >0.5% at between 21 and 146 sites across the genome for these samples, while 13 sites acquired mutations in excess of consensus frequency (50%). Analysis of polymorphism frequency revealed that a number of minority variants were transmitted during host-to-host infection events, while the size of the intra-host founder populations appeared to be smaller. These data indicate that viral population complexity is influenced by small intra-host bottlenecks and relatively large inter-host bottlenecks. The dynamics of minority variants are consistent with the actions of genetic drift rather than strong selection. These results provide novel insights into the evolution of FMDV that can be applied to reconstruct both intra- and inter-host transmission routes.
doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-12
PMCID: PMC3630017  PMID: 23452550
7.  Review of massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies 
The HUGO Journal  2011;5(1-4):1-12.
Since the development of technologies that can determine the base-pair sequence of DNA, the ability to sequence genes has contributed much to science and medicine. However, it has remained a relatively costly and laborious process, hindering its use as a routine biomedical tool. Recent times are seeing rapid developments in this field, both in the availability of novel sequencing platforms, as well as supporting technologies involved in processes such as targeting and data analysis. This is leading to significant reductions in the cost of sequencing a human genome and the potential for its use as a routine biomedical tool. This review is a snapshot of this rapidly moving field examining the current state of the art, forthcoming developments and some of the issues still to be resolved prior to the use of new sequencing technologies in routine clinical diagnosis.
doi:10.1007/s11568-011-9156-3
PMCID: PMC3238019  PMID: 23205160
Next generation sequencing; Targeting; Massively parallel
8.  Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic test accuracy for fetal sex using cell-free DNA a review and meta-analysis 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:476.
Background
Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) can be detected in maternal blood during pregnancy, opening the possibility of early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for a variety of genetic conditions. Since 1997, many studies have examined the accuracy of prenatal fetal sex determination using cffDNA, particularly for pregnancies at risk of an X-linked condition. Here we report a review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the use of cffDNA for prenatal determination (diagnosis) of fetal sex. We applied a sensitive search of multiple bibliographic databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane library and Web of Science.
Results
Ninety studies, incorporating 9,965 pregnancies and 10,587 fetal sex results met our inclusion criteria. Overall mean sensitivity was 96.6% (95% credible interval 95.2% to 97.7%) and mean specificity was 98.9% (95% CI = 98.1% to 99.4%). These results vary very little with trimester or week of testing, indicating that the performance of the test is reliably high.
Conclusions
Based on this review and meta-analysis we conclude that fetal sex can be determined with a high level of accuracy by analyzing cffDNA. Using cffDNA in prenatal diagnosis to replace or complement existing invasive methods can remove or reduce the risk of miscarriage. Future work should concentrate on the economic and ethical considerations of implementing an early non-invasive test for fetal sex.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-476
PMCID: PMC3444439  PMID: 22937795
Cell-free fetal DNA; Meta-analysis; Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis
9.  Beyond the Consensus: Dissecting Within-Host Viral Population Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Using Next-Generation Genome Sequencing▿ ‡  
Journal of Virology  2010;85(5):2266-2275.
The diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of RNA viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) performed on a Genome Analyzer platform (Illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. Genomic sequences were determined in duplicate sequencing runs, and the consensus sequence of the inoculum determined by NGS was identical to that previously determined using the Sanger method. However, NGS revealed the fine polymorphic substructure of the viral population, from nucleotide variants present at just below 50% frequency to those present at fractions of 1%. Some of the higher-frequency polymorphisms identified encoded changes within codons associated with heparan sulfate binding and were present in both foot lesions, revealing intermediate stages in the evolution of a tissue culture-adapted virus replicating within a mammalian host. We identified 2,622, 1,434, and 1,703 polymorphisms in the inoculum and in the two foot lesions, respectively: most of the substitutions occurred in only a small fraction of the population and represented the progeny from recent cellular replication prior to onset of any selective pressures. We estimated the upper limit for the genome-wide mutation rate of the virus within a cell to be 7.8 × 10−4 per nucleotide. The greater depth of detection achieved by NGS demonstrates that this method is a powerful and valuable tool for the dissection of FMDV populations within hosts.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01396-10
PMCID: PMC3067773  PMID: 21159860
10.  A new strategic phase for genomic medicine in UK health services 
Genome Medicine  2009;1(10):93.
In June 2009, the Science and Technology Committee of the UK House of Lords published a report on genomic medicine, based on expert evidence collected over an 18-month period. Crucially, the report signaled that the use of genomic medicine was at a crossroads, due to the rapid development of new technologies, and opened up opportunities across the whole of medicine and healthcare. This commentary responds to the report's call for a new health service strategy, including a new genetics White Paper from the Government, and suggests some of the important elements that need further consideration.
doi:10.1186/gm93
PMCID: PMC2784306  PMID: 19822024
11.  Empirical research on the ethics of genomic research 
There is no universally accepted definition of what an incidental finding is [Wolf et al., 2008] and broadly speaking this could include variants of known and unknown clinical significance, variants linked to highly penetrant, serious, life-threatening conditions, non-paternity or ancestry data. For the purposes of our study, we have adopted a pragmatic distinction between ‘pertinent’ and ‘incidental’ findings as set out in this text. Whilst in the US definitions of incidental findings are becoming accepted in practice [Green et al., 2013] it is still not known how and whether these also apply elsewhere around the world.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36067
PMCID: PMC3884757  PMID: 23813698
12.  The Human Phenotype Ontology project: linking molecular biology and disease through phenotype data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(D1):D966-D974.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) project, available at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org, provides a structured, comprehensive and well-defined set of 10,088 classes (terms) describing human phenotypic abnormalities and 13,326 subclass relations between the HPO classes. In addition we have developed logical definitions for 46% of all HPO classes using terms from ontologies for anatomy, cell types, function, embryology, pathology and other domains. This allows interoperability with several resources, especially those containing phenotype information on model organisms such as mouse and zebrafish. Here we describe the updated HPO database, which provides annotations of 7,278 human hereditary syndromes listed in OMIM, Orphanet and DECIPHER to classes of the HPO. Various meta-attributes such as frequency, references and negations are associated with each annotation. Several large-scale projects worldwide utilize the HPO for describing phenotype information in their datasets. We have therefore generated equivalence mappings to other phenotype vocabularies such as LDDB, Orphanet, MedDRA, UMLS and phenoDB, allowing integration of existing datasets and interoperability with multiple biomedical resources. We have created various ways to access the HPO database content using flat files, a MySQL database, and Web-based tools. All data and documentation on the HPO project can be found online.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1026
PMCID: PMC3965098  PMID: 24217912
13.  Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Risk Prediction Studies (GRIPS): Explanation and Elaboration 
European journal of epidemiology  2011;26(4):313-337.
The rapid and continuing progress in gene discovery for complex diseases is fuelling interest in the potential application of genetic risk models for clinical and public health practice.The number of studies assessing the predictive ability is steadily increasing, but they vary widely in completeness of reporting and apparent quality.Transparent reporting of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies is important to facilitate the accumulation of evidence on genetic risk prediction.A multidisciplinary workshop sponsored by the Human Genome Epidemiology Network developed a checklist of 25 items recommended for strengthening the reporting of Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies (GRIPS), building on the principles established by prior reporting guidelines.These recommendations aim to enhance the transparency, quality and completeness of study reporting, and thereby to improve the synthesis and application of information from multiple studies that might differ in design, conduct or analysis.
doi:10.1007/s10654-011-9551-z
PMCID: PMC3088812  PMID: 21424820
14.  Strengthening the reporting of genetic risk prediction studies (GRIPS): explanation and elaboration 
The rapid and continuing progress in gene discovery for complex diseases is fueling interest in the potential application of genetic risk models for clinical and public health practice. The number of studies assessing the predictive ability is steadily increasing, but they vary widely in completeness of reporting and apparent quality. Transparent reporting of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies is important to facilitate the accumulation of evidence on genetic risk prediction. A multidisciplinary workshop sponsored by the Human Genome Epidemiology Network developed a checklist of 25 items recommended for strengthening the reporting of Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies (GRIPS), building on the principles established by previous reporting guidelines. These recommendations aim to enhance the transparency, quality and completeness of study reporting, and thereby to improve the synthesis and application of information from multiple studies that might differ in design, conduct or analysis.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.27
PMCID: PMC3083630  PMID: 21407270
15.  Strengthening the reporting of genetic risk prediction studies (GRIPS): explanation and elaboration 
European Journal of Epidemiology  2011;26(4):313-337.
The rapid and continuing progress in gene discovery for complex diseases is fuelling interest in the potential application of genetic risk models for clinical and public health practice. The number of studies assessing the predictive ability is steadily increasing, but they vary widely in completeness of reporting and apparent quality. Transparent reporting of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies is important to facilitate the accumulation of evidence on genetic risk prediction. A multidisciplinary workshop sponsored by the Human Genome Epidemiology Network developed a checklist of 25 items recommended for strengthening the reporting of Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies (GRIPS), building on the principles established by prior reporting guidelines. These recommendations aim to enhance the transparency, quality and completeness of study reporting, and thereby to improve the synthesis and application of information from multiple studies that might differ in design, conduct or analysis.
doi:10.1007/s10654-011-9551-z
PMCID: PMC3088812  PMID: 21424820
Genetic; Risk prediction; Methodology; Guidelines; Reporting

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