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1.  Sexual behavior and vulnerability to HIV infection among seasonal migrant laborers in Metema district, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:122.
Background
Poor socio-economic conditions fuel seasonal migration of adult males from Northwestern Ethiopia, but behavioral and other migration-related changes increase their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. This study examined risky sexual behaviors and associated factors that may lead to increased HIV infection vulnerability among migrant laborers in Metema District, Ethiopia.
Methods
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 8–18, 2013 at farms with migrant laborers. We enrolled 756 participants through multistage random sampling. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed using EPI Info7; bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS.
Results
582 (77%) migrant workers had sexual intercourse in their lifetime. 68% (397/582) reported non-marital sexual intercourse in the preceding six months. Of these, 74% reported sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers, 49% reported having transactional sex, 49% reported unprotected sexual intercourse with CSWs, 69% reported multiple sexual partners in the preceding six months (mean = 2.9 ± 0.7). Being aged between 20–29 (AOR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.99) and 30 years or older (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.71), receipt of HIV prevention information in the preceding six months (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.63), and staying longer on the farm (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.14) were factors significantly associated with condom use at last non-marital sexual intercourse. Respondents aged ≤19, not receiving HIV information in the preceding six months, or staying on the farm for ≤2 months were less likely to have used condoms at their last non-marital sexual intercourse. Moreover, having daily income above USD 5.00 (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.41), paying for most recent sexual intercourse (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.61), and drinking alcohol during last sexual intercourse (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.83) were significantly associated with having multiple (≥2) sexual partners during the preceding six months.
Conclusions
Seasonal laborers commonly exhibit risky sexual behaviors likely to increase their vulnerability to HIV infection. Unprotected and multiple sex partners in these populations pose transmission risks to seasonal laborers and onward to their wives and future sexual partners. The findings support the need for targeted HIV prevention campaigns designed for seasonal workers and their sexual partners.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1468-0
PMCID: PMC4330642
HIV/AIDS; Sexual Behaviors; Vulnerability; Seasonal workers; Northwest Ethiopia
2.  Determinants of prescribed drug use among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city administration, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study 
Background
Drug use during pregnancy may be dangerous to the fetus. There is high consumption of prescribed drugs among pregnant women. This condition may be much higher in developing countries. There is no sufficient evidence on prescribed drug use among pregnant women in Bahir Dar town. The aim of this study was to assess the level of prescribed drug use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) service at government health centers in Bahir Dar city administration.
Methods
Institution based cross sectional study was used. Data were collected from randomly selected 510 pregnant women. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Back ward stepwise logistic regression model was used and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Result
A total of 510 pregnant women were included in the study of which 88.4% were prescribed at least one drug during pregnancy. Nearly 11% of the pregnant women were prescribed with drugs from category D or X of the US-FDA risk classification.
Prescribed drug use among pregnant women was more likely when the pregnancy is wanted, (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3 - 4.6), if the mother had maternal illness (AOR = 8.5, 95% CI: 5.4-13.4), when the educational level of ANC provider is diploma (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) and when number of pregnancies is more (AOR =2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3).
Conclusion
Prescribed drug use including those with potential harm to the fetus during pregnancy was very high in Bahir Dar city administration. Prescribed drug use is more when the woman had illness, when the woman was multi gravida and when the educational level of ANC provider was low (diploma). It is important to upgrade providers’ educational level and institute prevention of diseases like malaria to reduce the level of prescribed drug use during pregnancy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-325
PMCID: PMC4177766  PMID: 25233893
Pregnancy; Prescription; Drug use; Bahir Dar city
3.  Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:501.
Background
Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization.
Results
a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use.
Conclusion
a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practice STI protective behaviours in specific situations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to educate young people in universities about reproductive health and family planning and skills on how to prevent HIV/STIs including unwanted pregnancy.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-501
PMCID: PMC3494538  PMID: 22971668
University students; Emergency contraceptive; Risky sexual behaviour; Condom use; Northwest Ethiopia

Results 1-3 (3)