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author:("Røe, cecilia")
1.  Role of IL1A rs1800587, IL1B rs1143627 and IL1RN rs2234677 Genotype Regarding Development of Chronic Lumbar Radicular Pain; a Prospective One-Year Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107301.
Previous studies indicate that lumbar radicular pain following disc herniation may be associated with release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-1 (IL1). In the present study, we examined how genetic variability in IL1A (rs1800587 C>T), IL1B (rs1143627 T>C) and IL1RN (rs2234677 G>A) influenced the clinical outcome the first year after disc herniation. Patients (n = 258) with lumbar radicular pain due to disc herniation were recruited from two hospitals in Norway. Pain and disability were measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over a 12 month period. The result showed that patients with the IL1A T allele, in combination with the IL1RN A allele had more pain and a slower recovery than other patients (VAS p = 0.049, ODI p = 0.059 rmANOVA; VAS p = 0.003, ODI p = 0.050 one-way ANOVA at 12 months). However, regarding the IL1B/IL1RN genotype, no clear effect on recovery was observed (VAS p = 0.175, ODI p = 0.055 rmANOVA; VAS p = 0.105, ODI p = 0.214 one-way ANOVA at 12 months). The data suggest that the IL1A T/IL1RN A genotype, but not the IL1B T/IL1RN A genotype, may increase the risk of a chronic outcome in patients following disc herniation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107301
PMCID: PMC4160243  PMID: 25207923
2.  Subjective health complaints in patients with lumbar radicular pain and disc herniation are associated with a sex - OPRM1 A118G polymorphism interaction: a prospective 1-year observational study 
Background
Earlier observations show that development of persistent pain may be associated with the genetic variability in the gene encoding for the μ-opioid receptor 1, the OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPRM1 genotype and subjective health complaints in patients with radicular pain and disc herniation.
Methods
A prospective, 1-year observational study was conducted at a hospital back clinic, including 118 Caucasian patients with lumbar radicular pain and MRI confirmed disc herniation. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping regarding the OPRM1 A118G was performed. The data of individuals with AA versus AG or GG were analysed separately by linear mixed models. The Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (0-81) including 27 common complaints experienced the previous month on a scale from not at all (0) to severe (3) was used as outcome. Pain, prior duration of leg pain, age, smoking status, and lumbar disc surgery were considered as covariates.
Results
In total 23 of 118 patients were carriers of the OPRM1 G-allele. All patients except female carriers of the G-allele reported a decrease in pain from baseline to 1 year. Female carriers of the G-allele reported significantly higher subjective health complaints score during the study time span than male carriers of the G-allele when controlling for pain and pain duration.
Conclusion
The present data indicate that, when controlling for pain intensity and duration, subjective health complaints are associated with a sex - OPRM1 A118G polymorphism interaction in patients with radicular pain.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-161
PMCID: PMC4038376  PMID: 24884878
μ-opioid receptor 1; Sex; Subjective health complaints; Sciatica; Radiculopathy; OPRM1 A118G; rs1799971
3.  Psychometric properties of the pain stages of change questionnaire as evaluated by rasch analysis in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain 
Background
Our objective was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ) and its four subscales Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action and Maintenance.
Methods
A total of 231 patients, median age 42 years, with chronic musculoskeletal pain responded to the 30 items in PSOCQ. Thresholds for item scores, and unidimensionality and invariance of the PSOCQ and its four subscales were evaluated by Rasch analysis, partial credit model.
Results
The items had disordered threshold and needed to be rescored. The 30 items in the PSOCQ did not fit the Rasch model Chi- square item trait statistics. All subscales fitted the Rasch models. The associations to pain (11 point numeric rating scale), emotional distress (Hopkins symptom check list v 25) and self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale) were highest for the Precontemplation subscale.
Conclusion
The present analysis revealed that all four subscales in PSOCQ fitted the Rasch model. No common construct for all subscales were identified, but the Action and Maintenance subscales were closely related.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-95
PMCID: PMC3994659  PMID: 24646065
Musculoskeletal pain; Pain stages of change; Self-management; Rasch analysis
4.  Fear–avoidance beliefs associated with perceived psychological and social factors at work among patients with neck and back pain: a cross-sectional multicentre study 
Background
Neck and back pain are common and often account for absenteeism at work. Factors at work as well as fear–avoidance beliefs may influence sick-leave in these patients. The aims of this study were to assess: (1) how sick-listed patients in specialised care perceive demand, control, support, effort, reward, and overcommitment at work compared to a general reference group of workers; (2) if women and men report demand, control, support, effort, reward, and overcommitment differently; and (3) the association between psychological and social factors at work and fear–avoidance beliefs about work.
Methods
A cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out in 373 patients on sick leave due to neck and back pain. Psychosocial work factors were measured by demand, control, and support, (Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work), and effort, reward and overcommitment (Effort Reward Imbalance Questionnaire). Fear avoidance beliefs about work were measured by the Fear–Avoidance Belief Questionnaire Work subscale (FABQ-W).
Results
Although the patients differed significantly from a reference working group regarding several subscales of demand, control, support, effort, reward, and overcommitment, the magnitude of these differences were small. The study population also reported significantly higher scores for ‘demand for physical endurance’ than the reference population, and Cohen’s d = 0.55 here indicated a medium degree of difference. Female patients reported significantly higher on support, whereas male patients reported significantly higher demand for physical endurance, quantitative demand, effort, and overcommitment. Demand for physical endurance, job control, job support, high reward, and overcommitment were significantly associated with FABQ-W.
Conclusions
Perceived psychological and social factors at work were strongly associated with fear–avoidance beliefs about work in sick-listed neck and back patients. The demand for physical endurance, control, support, high reward, as well as overcommittment at work outweighed pain and added to the burden of emotional distress and disability regarding fear–avoidance beliefs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-329
PMCID: PMC4222809  PMID: 24261336
Fear–avoidance beliefs; Neck pain; Back pain; Psychosocial work factors; Disability
5.  Coffee intake and development of pain during computer work 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:480.
Background
The present study sought to determine if subjects who had consumed coffee before performing a simulated computer office-work task found to provoke pain in the neck and shoulders and forearms and wrists exhibited different time course in the pain development than the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake.
Findings
Forty eight subjects all working fulltime, 22 with chronic shoulder and neck pain and 26 healthy pain-free subjects, were recruited to perform a computer-based office-work task for 90 min. Nineteen (40%) of the subjects had consumed coffee (1/2 -1 cup) on average 1 h 18 min before start. Pain intensity in the shoulders and neck and forearms and wrists was rated on a visual analogue scale every 15 min throughout the work task.
During the work task the coffee consumers exhibited significantly lower pain increase than those who abstained from coffee.
Conclusions
Subjects who had consumed coffee before starting a pain provoking office work task exhibited attenuated pain development compared with the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. These results might have potentially interesting implications of a pain-modulating effect of caffeine in an everyday setting. However, studies with a double blind placebo controlled randomized design are needed.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-480
PMCID: PMC3476989  PMID: 22943590
Computer work; Muscle; Pain; Coffee
6.  Retaining the patient perspective in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for low back pain 
Objective
To examine the relationship between health problems as rated by the health professionals in the Norwegian form of the Core Set for low back pain and the patients’ self-reported health problems in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II).
Methods
This was part of an international multicenter study where a convenience sample of 118 Norwegian patients with low back pain (LBP) participated. The ICF Core Set for LBP was filled in by the health professionals. The patients reported their health problems in the WHODAS II and ODI. The items in WHODAS II and ODI were linked to the ICF. The problems reported in WHODAS II and ODI were compared to the problems scored by the health professionals in the linked ICF categories in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for LBP.
Results
All items in ODI could be linked the ICF. Four items in WHODAS II could not be linked to the ICF and additionally two items could not be linked to specific ICF categories. All ICF categories linked to the ODI were included in the Comprehensive Core Set for LBP, whereas six items in WHODAS II could not be linked, and additionally 11 of the items were not represented in the Core Set. With the exception of sexual function, above three quarter of the patients’ reported problems within body functions was captured by the health professionals. Within several of the activities and participation categories the health professionals scores in the ICF reflected the patients’ reported problems well. Surprisingly some of the problems in activities of daily living were poorly reflected.
Conclusion
The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for LBP covers most of the items in ODI and WHODAS II in areas where patients report significant problems, with some exceptions. The subjective dimension related to the impact of the health condition as well as the feeling of being a burden to their family appeared to be important to these patients and not covered in the ICF. Problems with sexual functions and relationship were poorly reflected in the health professionals’ scores in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for LBP. In clinical practice it is a challenge to assess the individual patients’ broad spectrum of problems precisely.
PMCID: PMC2770393  PMID: 19920981
low back pain; WHODAS II; ICF; musculoskeletal disorders

Results 1-6 (6)