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1.  Psychosocial Interventions for Alcohol Use Among Problem Drug Users: Protocol for a Feasibility Study in Primary Care 
JMIR Research Protocols  2013;2(2):e26.
Background
Alcohol use is an important issue among problem drug users. Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) are effective in reducing problem alcohol use in primary care, no research has examined this issue among problem drug users.
Objective
The objective of this study is to determine if a complex intervention including SBI for problem alcohol use among problem drug users is feasible and acceptable in practice. This study also aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing the proportion of patients with problem alcohol use.
Methods
Psychosocial intervention for alcohol use among problem drug users (PINTA) is a pilot feasibility study of a complex intervention comprising SBI for problem alcohol use among problem drug users with cluster randomization at the level of general practice, integrated qualitative process evaluation, and involving general practices in two socioeconomically deprived regions. Practices (N=16) will be eligible to participate if they are registered to prescribe methadone and/or at least 10 patients of the practice are currently receiving addiction treatment. Patient must meet the following inclusion criteria to participate in this study: 18 years of age or older, receiving addiction treatment/care (eg, methadone), or known to be a problem drug user. This study is based on a complex intervention supporting SBI for problem alcohol use among problem drug users (experimental group) compared to an “assessment-only” control group. Control practices will be provided with a delayed intervention after follow-up. Primary outcomes of the study are feasibility and acceptability of the intervention to patients and practitioners. Secondary outcome includes the effectiveness of the intervention on care process (documented rates of SBI) and outcome (proportion of patients with problem alcohol use at the follow-up). A stratified random sampling method will be used to select general practices based on the level of training for providing addiction-related care and geographical area. In this study, general practitioners and practice staff, researchers, and trainers will not be blinded to treatment, but patients and remote randomizers will be unaware of the treatment.
Results
This study is ongoing and a protocol system is being developed for the study. This study may inform future research among the high-risk population of problem drug users by providing initial indications as to whether psychosocial interventions for problem alcohol use are feasible, acceptable, and also effective among problem drug users attending primary care.
Conclusions
This is the first study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of complex intervention in primary care to enhance alcohol SBI among problem drug users. Results of this study will inform future research among this high-risk population and guide policy and service development locally and internationally.
doi:10.2196/resprot.2678
PMCID: PMC3742410  PMID: 23912883
complex intervention; screening; brief intervention; alcohol; methadone maintenance; primary health care; general practice; substance-related disorders
2.  A child with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis and ectodermal dysplasia treated with immunosuppression: a case report 
Introduction
Common features of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia include candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and hypoadrenalism. The initial manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia may be autoimmune hepatitis, keratoconjunctivitis, frequent fever with or without a rash, chronic diarrhea, or different combinations of these with or without oral candidiasis.
Case presentation
We discuss a profoundly affected 2.9-year-old Caucasian girl of Western European descent with a dramatic response to immunosuppression (initially azathioprine and oral steroids, and then subsequently mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy). At four years of follow-up, her response to mycophenolate mofetil is excellent.
Conclusion
The clinical features of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia may continue for years before some of the more common components appear. In such cases, it may be life-saving to diagnose autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia and commence therapy with immunosuppressive agents. The response of our patient to immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil has been dramatic. It is possible that other patients with this condition might also benefit from immunosuppression.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-44
PMCID: PMC3602103  PMID: 23409957
APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia); APS (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome); Autoimmunity; Immunosuppression; Endocrinopathies
3.  Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users: Cochrane Reviewa 
Systematic Reviews  2013;2:3.
Background
Problem alcohol use is common among illicit drug users and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor in poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opiate overdose in opioid users. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for problem alcohol use in adult illicit drug users with concurrent problem alcohol use (principally, problem drug users of opiates and stimulants).
Methods
We searched the following databases (November 2011): Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and reference list of articles. We also searched conference proceedings and online registers of clinical trials. Two reviewers independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included randomized controlled trials.
Results
Four studies (594 participants) were included in this review. Half of the trials were rated as having a high or unclear risk of bias. The four studies considered six different psychosocial interventions grouped into four comparisons: 1) cognitive-behavioral coping skills training versus 12-step facilitation (N = 41), 2) brief intervention versus treatment as usual (N = 110), 3) hepatitis health promotion versus motivational interviewing (N = 256), and 4) brief motivational intervention versus assessment-only group (N = 187). Differences between studies precluded any pooling of data. Findings are described for each trial individually. Most findings were not statistically significant except for comparison 2: decreased alcohol use at three months (risk ratio (RR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.54) and nine months (RR 0.16; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.33) in the treatment-as-usual group and comparison 4: reduced alcohol use in the brief motivational intervention (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.60).
Conclusions
No conclusion can be made because of the paucity of the data and the low quality of the retrieved studies.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-2-3
PMCID: PMC3564788  PMID: 23311684
Alcohol; Brief intervention; Illicit drugs; Opioids; Systematic review; Screening; Methadone
4.  Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:491.
Background
Overweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit.
Findings
A retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females). Twenty-one children (26.9%) were overweight/obese: 14/21 parents (66.7%) thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food.
Conclusions
This study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-491
PMCID: PMC3441275  PMID: 22954320
Overweight; Obesity; Children; Hospital; Nutrition
5.  Impaired endothelial function in pediatric patients with turner syndrome and healthy controls: a case-control study 
Background
Turner Syndrome women are at high risk of vascular disease and the assessment of early risk factors in Turner Syndrome girls is an emerging focus of research. Our objective was to evaluate endothelial function (EF), a preclinical measure of atherosclerosis, in Turner Syndrome girls compared with controls.
Methods
A cross-sectional case-control study of Turner Syndrome girls and healthy controls. Subjects underwent fasting insulin and glucose with calculation of HOMA-IR, fasting lipid profile, anthropometrics, and EF testing using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Subjects, aged 10-18 years, had karyotype-confirmed Turner Syndrome; growth hormone (GH), thyroxine and estrogen use were not exclusion criteria. Controls were age- and BMI-matched healthy girls. Fifteen Turner Syndrome and 15 controls were recruited.
Results
Turner Syndrome girls had lower height, higher HDL and higher waist:height ratio than controls. PAT-hyperemia ratio (RH-PAT) scores were lower in Turner Syndrome (1.64 ± 0.34 vs. 2.08 ± 0.32, p = 0.002) indicating impaired EF. Among Turner Syndrome, RH-PAT did not vary with estrogen therapy or with karyotype 45,XO compared with other karyotypes. However, endothelial function was better in GH-treated compared with GH-untreated Turner Syndrome (1.80 ± 0.36 vs. 1.4 + 0.22, p = 0.02) although there were no differences in HOMA-IR, adiponectin or IGF-1.
Conclusion
Girls with Turner Syndrome exhibit impaired endothelial function compared with controls, which may explain higher risk for vascular disease. GH may protect endothelial function in Turner Syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1687-9856-2012-5
PMCID: PMC3388952  PMID: 22472028
Turner syndrome; Endothelial function; Adolescents; Pediatrics
6.  Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits 
Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S7356
PMCID: PMC3037084  PMID: 21339908
cholesterol; statins; children; adolescents; vascular risk
7.  The Impact of Telemedicine Interventions Involving Routine Transmission of Blood Glucose Data with Clinician Feedback on Metabolic Control in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Our objective was to determine the impact of telemedicine (TM) interventions on the management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in youth. We performed a systematic review of randomized trials that evaluated TM interventions involving transmission of blood glucose data followed by unsolicited scheduled clinician feedback. We found no apparent effect of the TM interventions on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), severe hypoglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The limited data available on patient satisfaction, quality of life, and cost also suggested no differences between groups. It is unlikely that TM interventions, as performed in the assessed studies, had a substantial effect on glycemic control or acute complications. However, it remains possible that there are other benefits of TM not adequately reported, that newer TM strategies may be more effective and that interventions may benefit subgroups of youth, such as those with the poor glycemic control, adolescents, or those living in remote areas.
doi:10.1155/2010/536957
PMCID: PMC2945636  PMID: 20886054
9.  Identification of an autoantigen demonstrates a link between interstitial lung disease and a defect in central tolerance 
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of systemic autoimmunity characterized by progressive inflammation or scarring of the lungs. Patients who develop these complications can exhibit significantly impaired gas exchange that may result in hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and even death. Unfortunately, little is understood about how these diseases arise, including the role of specific defects in immune tolerance. Another key question is whether autoimmune responses targeting the lung parenchyma are critical to ILD pathogenesis, including that of isolated, idiopathic forms. We show that a specific defect in central tolerance brought about by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) leads to an autoreactive T cell response to a lung antigen named vomeromodulin and the development of ILD. We found that a human patient and mice with defects in Aire develop lung pathology that is strikingly similar, demonstrating that the AIRE-deficient model of autoimmunity is a suitable translational system in which to unravel fundamental mechanisms of ILD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3000284
PMCID: PMC2856693  PMID: 20368189
10.  An evaluation of Medline published paediatric audits from 1966 to 1999 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;92(4):309-311.
Aim
To evaluate the quality of paediatric audits from 1966 to 1999.
Methods
A Medline search was performed using the MeSH terms audit, child, paediatric (and pediatric). Predefined core elements of audit were used as inclusion criteria for entry of an article into this study. These criteria were as follows: (1) an article deals with a healthcare topic; (2) a standard is predefined; (3) actual practice is evaluated; (4) actual practice is compared with the standard. The fifth criterion of audit, dissemination of information and reaudit, was not an inclusion criterion, as it was not used in the early years covered by this study. Empirical grading of standards was used.
Results
The search yielded 442 articles, of which 303 (100%) were related to paediatric healthcare and were reviewed. Standards were defined in 115 (38%) articles. Audit against the standard was performed in 92 (30.4%) articles, of which 42 (45.6%) were published before, and 50 (54.3%) after, 1990. 18 (5.9%) articles were re‐audited: 6 (14.3%) were published before, and 12 (24%) after, 1990. Of the 188 paediatric studies rejected, 119 (63.3%) described practice observations.
Conclusion
Many articles in paediatrics are published as “audits”, but they do not contain the core elements of audit. Although audit is a potentially valuable tool in clinical medicine, the publication of poor‐quality audits may lead to the decline of the audit concept. Suggestions on ways to improve the quality of published audits are made.
doi:10.1136/adc.2004.071381
PMCID: PMC2083691  PMID: 16738000

Results 1-12 (12)