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1.  Evaluation of host quality of life and immune function in breast cancer patients treated with combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract 
OncoTargets and therapy  2013;6:853-859.
Purpose
Anthracycline-based chemotherapies for breast cancer are well known to have adverse effects and can also negatively affect host immune function. There is therefore a necessity for an adjuvant that maintains the quality of life (QOL) and immune function of cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapies.
Patients and methods
The present study investigated the effectiveness of the concomitant use of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM), an oral immunomodulator, with FEC75 (5-fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide) therapy on host QOL and immune function in breast cancer patients with nodal metastases. Ten breast cancer patients with nodal metastases receiving surgery were enrolled in this study. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2), epirubicin (75 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2) was performed every 21 days for two courses, and LEM (1800 mg/day by mouth) was administered during the second course.
Results
In the first course, hematological toxicity was observed and host QOL and immune function were exacerbated. In the second course, however, the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes did not decrease and host QOL was maintained. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer cells and the proportion of activated NK and NK T-cells in lymphocytes were maintained in the second course.
Conclusion
It has been suggested that the concomitant use of LEM with FEC75 therapy can maintain host QOL and immune function, and offer important implications for an application of LEM as a useful oral adjuvant to anthracycline-based chemotherapies.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S44169
PMCID: PMC3711972  PMID: 23874107
clinical study; breast cancer; anthracycline; Lentinula edodes; immunity; quality of life
2.  Germline copy number variations associated with breast cancer susceptibility in a Japanese population 
Tumour Biology  2012;34(2):947-952.
Although copy number variations (CNVs) are expected to affect various diseases, little is known about the association between CNVs and breast cancer susceptibility. Therefore, we investigated this relation. Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed to search for candidate CNVs related to breast cancer susceptibility. Subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out for confirmation. We found seven CNV markers associated with breast cancer risk. The means of the relative copy numbers of patients with a history of breast cancer and women in the control group were 0.8 and 1.8 for Hs06535529_cn on 1p36.12 (P < 0.0001), 2.9 and 2.2 for Hs03103056_cn on 3q26.1 (P < 0.0001), 1.2 and 1.8 for Hs03899300_cn on 15q26.3 (P < 0.0001), 1.0 and 1.5 for Hs03908783_cn on 15q26.3 (P < 0.0001), and 1.1 and 1.7 for Hs03898338_cn on 15q26.3 (P < 0.0001), respectively. Interestingly, nine or more copies of Hs04093415_cn on 22q12.3 were found only in 8/193 (4.1 %) patients with a history of breast cancer and in none of the controls (P = 0.0081). Similarly, 12 or more copies of Hs040908898_cn on 22q12.3 were found only in 7/193 (3.6 %) patients with a history of breast cancer and in none of the controls (P = 0.016). A combination of two CNVs resulted in 80.3 % sensitivity, 80.6 % specificity, 82.4 % positive predictive value, and 78.3 % negative predictive value for the prediction of breast cancer susceptibility. These findings may lead to a new means of risk assessment for breast cancer. Confirmatory studies using independent data sets are needed to support our findings.
doi:10.1007/s13277-012-0630-x
PMCID: PMC3597278  PMID: 23275252
CNV; Breast cancer susceptibility; CGH; Real-time PCR; Digital PCR
3.  Luminal A and luminal B (HER2 negative) subtypes of breast cancer consist of a mixture of tumors with different genotype 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:376.
Background
The St Gallen International Expert Consensus 2011 has proposed a new classification system for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the breast cancer subtypes determined by the new classification system and genomic characteristics.
Methods
Invasive breast cancers (n = 363) were immunohistochemically classified as follows: 111 (30.6%) as luminal A, 95 (26.2%) as luminal B (HER2 negative), 69 (19.0%) as luminal B (HER2 positive), 41 (11.3%) as HER2, and 47 (12.9%) as basal-like subtypes.
Results
The high expression of Ki-67 antigen was detected in 236 tumors; no cases of luminal A subtype showed high expression of the Ki-67 antigen, but more than 85% of tumors of the other subtypes showed high expression. In addition, DNA ploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) were assessed using imaging cytometry and FISH, respectively. In this series, 336 (92.6%) tumors consisted of 129 diploid/CIN- and 207 aneuploid/CIN + tumors. Diploid/CIN- and aneuploid/CIN+ features were detected in 64.9% and 27.9% of luminal A, 41.1% and 49.5% of luminal B (HER2-), 11.6% and 81.2% of luminal B (HER2+), 4.9% and 90.2% of HER2, and 17.0% and 76.6% of basal-like subtypes, respectively. Unlike the luminal B (HER2+), HER2 and basal-like subtypes, the luminal A and luminal B (HER2-) subtypes were heterogeneous in terms of DNA ploidy and CIN.
Conclusions
It is reasonable to propose that the luminal A and luminal B (HER2-) subtypes should be further divided into two subgroups, diploid/CIN- and aneuploid/CIN+, based on their underlying genomic status.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-376
PMCID: PMC3413599  PMID: 22830453

Results 1-3 (3)